Words followed bY this sYmbol 0 are def ined here
bronchitis--- inflammation of the bronchi (bronchial tubes), the airway tubes extending from the trachea into both lungs. capillaries--- smallest of the blood vessels; they connect arteries to veins. eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE, encephalomyelitis)---brain and spinal-cord inflammation in horses, caused by a specific viral strain transmitted by mosquitoes. EEE is characterized by fever and/or stupor and is almost always fatal. equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)--endocrine disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the bloodstream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes. equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) ---inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by protozoal infection. eustachian tube--- slender tube between the middle ear and pharynx that equalizes air pressure on both sides of the eardrum. guttural pouches--- two sacs connected to the eustachian tube between the horse’s ear and throat, opening into the throat; they assist in cooling the brain during strenuous exercise. insulin resistance--- metabolic disorder, similar to type 2 diabetes, that occurs when certain cells in the body become less sensitive to the action of insulin, and normal amounts of the hormone can no longer keep adequate amounts of glucose moving into the cells for use as fuel. ivermectin--- generic name for an antiparasitic agent. laminae--- alternating “leaves” of flesh and hoof horn that bond the wall of the hoof to the underlying bone. laminitis--- inflammation of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologic injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriate, intensive treatment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, long-term condition that may be unresponsive to treatment. larynx (voice box)---organ that functions to keep unwanted substances out of the airway and to produce voice. Centered just at the back of the lower jawbone, the larynx is equivalent to the human “Adam’s apple.” nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling. pharynx--- chamber in the center of the head serving both breathing and swallowing, bounded by the nasal passages in front, the soft palate below and the larynx and esophagus behind. The pharynx serves breathing except during swallowing. pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, Cushing’s disease)---disease caused when the cortex of the adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of hormones, including cortisol; signs include persistent long hair, thin skin, fragile bones, stupor, weakness and sweating. rhinopneumonitis--- highly contagious disease caused by herpesviruses (EHV-1, EHV4); characterized by fever, mild respiratory infection and, in mares, abortion. In rare cases, some strains of these herpesviruses also cause potentially fatal neurologic complications. strangles (distemper)---highly contagious infection of the lymph nodes, usually of the head, caused by Streptococcus equi bacteria. The abscesses may become so large as to obstruct the airway (hence the term “strangles”) and may break internally, draining a thick, yellow pus through the nose, or externally, draining through a spontaneous or surgical opening in the skin. temporomandibular joints--- the joints that hinge the lower jaw to the base of the skull. trachea--- flexible tube connecting the back of the pharynx to the lungs; passageway for inhalation and exhalation. West Nile virus--- flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. West Nile virus can infect birds, horses, humans and other mammals. In horses, as in people, infection with the virus usually causes little or no illness. For reasons not yet determined, however, West Nile infection sometimes triggers swelling of the brain (encephalitis) that produces limb weakness, muscle fasciculation (twitching), incoordination, behavioral changes, paralysis and recumbency. In severe cases, West Nile encephalitis can lead to coma and death.