GLOS­SARY

EQUUS - - Equus -

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bron­chi­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the bronchi (bronchial tubes), the air­way tubes ex­tend­ing from the trachea into both lungs. cap­il­lar­ies--- small­est of the blood ves­sels; they con­nect ar­ter­ies to veins. eastern equine en­cephalomyeli­tis (EEE, en­cephalomyeli­tis)---brain and spinal-cord in­flam­ma­tion in horses, caused by a spe­cific vi­ral strain trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes. EEE is char­ac­ter­ized by fever and/or stu­por and is al­most al­ways fa­tal. equine meta­bolic syn­drome (EMS)--en­docrine dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood­stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes. equine pro­to­zoal myeloen­cephali­tis (EPM) ---in­flam­ma­tion of the brain and spinal cord caused by pro­to­zoal in­fec­tion. eu­stachian tube--- slender tube be­tween the mid­dle ear and phar­ynx that equal­izes air pres­sure on both sides of the eardrum. gut­tural pouches--- two sacs con­nected to the eu­stachian tube be­tween the horse’s ear and throat, open­ing into the throat; they as­sist in cool­ing the brain dur­ing stren­u­ous ex­er­cise. in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic dis­or­der, sim­i­lar to type 2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glucose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel. iver­mectin--- generic name for an an­tipar­a­sitic agent. lam­i­nae--- al­ter­nat­ing “leaves” of flesh and hoof horn that bond the wall of the hoof to the un­der­ly­ing bone. lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment. lar­ynx (voice box)---or­gan that func­tions to keep un­wanted sub­stances out of the air­way and to pro­duce voice. Cen­tered just at the back of the lower jaw­bone, the lar­ynx is equiv­a­lent to the hu­man “Adam’s ap­ple.” non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory drug (NSAID)---drug that con­tains no steroids and acts to re­duce heat and swelling. phar­ynx--- cham­ber in the cen­ter of the head serv­ing both breath­ing and swal­low­ing, bounded by the nasal pas­sages in front, the soft palate be­low and the lar­ynx and esoph­a­gus be­hind. The phar­ynx serves breath­ing ex­cept dur­ing swal­low­ing. pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing. rhinop­neu­moni­tis--- highly con­ta­gious dis­ease caused by her­pesviruses (EHV-1, EHV4); char­ac­ter­ized by fever, mild res­pi­ra­tory in­fec­tion and, in mares, abor­tion. In rare cases, some strains of these her­pesviruses also cause po­ten­tially fa­tal neu­ro­logic com­pli­ca­tions. stran­gles (dis­tem­per)---highly con­ta­gious in­fec­tion of the lymph nodes, usu­ally of the head, caused by Strep­to­coc­cus equi bac­te­ria. The ab­scesses may be­come so large as to ob­struct the air­way (hence the term “stran­gles”) and may break in­ter­nally, drain­ing a thick, yel­low pus through the nose, or ex­ter­nally, drain­ing through a spon­ta­neous or sur­gi­cal open­ing in the skin. tem­poro­mandibu­lar joints--- the joints that hinge the lower jaw to the base of the skull. trachea--- flexible tube con­nect­ing the back of the phar­ynx to the lungs; pas­sage­way for in­hala­tion and ex­ha­la­tion. West Nile virus--- fla­vivirus trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes. West Nile virus can in­fect birds, horses, hu­mans and other mam­mals. In horses, as in peo­ple, in­fec­tion with the virus usu­ally causes lit­tle or no ill­ness. For rea­sons not yet de­ter­mined, how­ever, West Nile in­fec­tion some­times trig­gers swelling of the brain (en­cephali­tis) that pro­duces limb weak­ness, mus­cle fas­ci­c­u­la­tion (twitch­ing), in­co­or­di­na­tion, be­hav­ioral changes, paral­y­sis and re­cum­bency. In se­vere cases, West Nile en­cephali­tis can lead to coma and death.

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