GLOS­SARY

EQUUS - - Contents -

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol are de­fined here

al­lele--- one of the al­ter­na­tive forms of any gene on a chro­mo­some. Each al­lele rep­re­sents a dif­fer­ent vari­a­tion of a phys­i­cal trait and each has one cor­re­spond­ing al­lele on the chro­mo­some’s paired coun­ter­part. For ex­am­ple, one blue-eye al­lele will have one cor­re­spond­ing al­lele that car­ries ei­ther a blue, green or brown­eye trait. body con­di­tion score (BCS)---a des­ig­na­tion, based on a nine-point nu­meric scale, in­di­cat­ing the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is as­signed af­ter a vis­ual and hands-on ap­praisal. chro­mo­some--- the self-repli­cat­ing ge­netic struc­ture of cells con­tain­ing the cel­lu­lar DNA that bears in its nu­cleo­tide se­quence the lin­ear ar­ray of genes. Each species has a con­stant num­ber of chro­mo­somes set in pairs in the nu­cleus of each body cell; the horse has 64, or 32 pairs. DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of liv­ing or­gan­isms. eastern equine en­cephalomyeli­tis (EEE, en­cephalomyeli­tis)---brain and spinal-cord in­flam­ma­tion in horses, caused by a spe­cific vi­ral strain trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes. EEE is char­ac­ter­ized by fever and/or stu­por and is al­most al­ways fa­tal. edema--- ab­nor­mal col­lec­tion of fluid (soft swelling) in body tis­sues. geno­type--- to­tal ge­netic in­her­i­tance; all of the genes present in the chro­mo­somes of a horse’s cells, one-half of which came from his fa­ther and one-half from his mother. heterozy­gous--- hav­ing two dif­fer­ent genes for a char­ac­ter­is­tic, one of which usu­ally dominates the other. ho­mozy­gous--- hav­ing two iden­ti­cal genes for a char­ac­ter­is­tic. lar­ynx (voice box)---or­gan that func­tions to keep un­wanted sub­stances out of the air­way and to pro­duce voice; cen­tered just at the back of the lower jaw­bone, the lar­ynx is equiv­a­lent to the hu­man “Adam’s ap­ple.” non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory drug (NSAID)---drug that con­tains no steroids and acts to re­duce heat and swelling. phe­no­type--- phys­i­cal makeup and ap­pear­ance of an or­gan­ism as de­ter­mined by its genes and en­vi­ron­ment; ex­pres­sion of a geno­type. ra­bies--- acute in­fec­tious vi­ral dis­ease of the cen­tral ner­vous sys­tem, usu­ally fa­tal. rain­rot (rain scald)---crusted, painful, in­fec­tious skin in­flam­ma­tion, caused by Der­matophilus con­golen­sis, which lifts the hair and re­moves it at its root, re­sult­ing in slip­ping away of af­fected ar­eas of the hair coat; trig­gered by mois­ture. RNA (ri­bonu­cleic acid)---gene-like chem­i­cal found in the nu­cleus and cy­to­plasm of cells; plays an im­por­tant role in pro­tein syn­the­sis and other chem­i­cal ac­tiv­i­ties of the cell. There are sev­eral classes of RNA mol­e­cules, in­clud­ing mes­sen­ger RNA, trans­fer RNA and ri­bo­so­mal RNA, each serv­ing a dif­fer­ent pur­pose. shock--- fail­ure of the vi­tal body sys­tems, char­ac­ter­ized by loss of blood vol­ume and pres­sure, shal­low breath­ing and rapid heart­beat. Shock is usu­ally the di­rect and po­ten­tially fa­tal byprod­uct of ex­tremely se­ri­ous in­jury, stress or ill­ness. stock­ing up (stag­na­tion edema)---thick­en­ing of the lower leg due to col­lec­tion of fluid in and un­der the skin. tetanus--- rigid par­a­lytic dis­ease caused by Clostrid­ium tetani, an anaer­o­bic bac­terium that lives in soil and fe­ces. ty­ing up (re­cur­rent ex­er­tional rhab­domy­ol­y­sis, azo­turia, Mon­day-morn­ing sick­ness, myosi­tis) ---se­vere, painful cramp­ing of large mus­cle masses, re­sult­ing in dis­col­oration of the urine with the byprod­ucts of mus­cle de­struc­tion. Ty­ing up of­ten is seen in fit horses who re­sume heavy ex­er­cise af­ter a few days of rest with­out any re­duc­tion in grain ra­tion. west­ern equine en­cephalomyeli­tis (WEE)--brain and spinal-cord in­flam­ma­tion in horses, caused by a spe­cific vi­ral strain trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes. Signs in­clude fever, de­pres­sion, ataxia and head-press­ing. West Nile virus--- fla­vivirus trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes. West Nile virus can in­fect birds, horses, hu­mans and other mam­mals. West Nile in­fec­tion some­times trig­gers swelling of the brain (en­cephali­tis) that pro­duces limb weak­ness, mus­cle fas­ci­c­u­la­tion (twitch­ing), in­co­or­di­na­tion, be­hav­ioral changes, paral­y­sis and re­cum­bency. In se­vere cases, West Nile en­cephali­tis can lead to coma and death.

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