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alimentary canal--- tube system in which the entire digestive process takes place; runs from mouth to anus. biotin--- water-soluble vitamin of the B complex. body condition score (BCS)---a designation, based on a nine-point numeric scale, indicating the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is assigned after a visual and hands-on appraisal. bursa--- sac or cavity filled with fluid, located at a joint or other area where friction is likely to occur. It provides lubrication between ligaments, tendons and the bones over which they run. cortisol (hydrocortisone)---adrenal hormone regulating fat and water metabolism, muscle tone, nerve stimulation and inflammation. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)---large organic molecule that consists of two chains of nucleotides wound around each other; the material of which genes are made. Genes are responsible for the individual inherited characteristics of living organisms. equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)--endocrine disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the bloodstream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes. flunixin meglumine--- generic name for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pain reliever commonly given for colic, eye pain or generalized body discomfort. guttural pouches--- two sacs connected to the eustachian tube between the horse’s ear and throat, opening into the throat; assist in cooling the brain during strenuous exercise. heaves--- common term for recurrent airway obstruction, a respiratory disease, usually of older horses, induced by exposure to dusts typically found in stables and resulting in narrowing of the small airways of the lungs. hypothalamus--- portion of the floor of the brain that regulates many automatic body processes either directly by nervous control or indirectly by hormone production. insulin resistance--- metabolic disorder, similar to type 2 diabetes, that occurs when certain cells in the body become less sensitive to the action of insulin, and normal amounts of the hormone can no longer keep adequate amounts of glucose moving into the cells for use as fuel. laminitis--- inflammation of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologic injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriate, intensive treatment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, long-term condition that may be unresponsive to treatment. methionine--- essential amino acid in proteins, notable for its double sulfur bonds which are critical in the formation of hair and horn; may also be prepared synthetically and added to feed to treat weak hooves and horses who are recovering from founder. MSM (methylsulfonylmethane)---sulfurcontaining oral preparation that is a chemical fraction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an organic substance with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and analgesic properties; popular in the management of athletic pain. neutrophil--- type of white blood cell that fights acute bacterial infections and is the main constituent of pus. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling. peritonitis--- inflammation of the membrane lining the abdominal walls and covering the abdominal organs. pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, Cushing’s disease)---disease caused when the cortex of the adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of hormones, including cortisol; signs include persistent long hair, thin skin, fragile bones, stupor, weakness and sweating.
plasma--- blood liquid that contains specialized cells, such as platelets, and the proteins related to clotting; obtained by centrifuging whole unclotted blood to settle out the other cells. shipping fever--- complex of disorders resulting from prolonged stress, such as transportation; principal manifestation is pleuropneumonia with fever. white cells (leukocytes, white blood cells)--colorless blood cells active in the body’s defense against infection or other assault. There are five types: neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils.