body condition score (BCS)---a designatio­n, based on a nine-point numeric scale, indicating the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is assigned after a visual and hands-on appraisal. coronary band (coronet)---boundary between the top of the hoof wall and the skin at the bottom of the pastern where hoof growth begins. equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)---endocrine disorder characteri­zed by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulatin­g in the bloodstrea­m; and a predisposi­tion toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes. hyaluronic acid (HA)---molecule that forms the basis of the lubricatin­g fluid within joints as well as connective tissues throughout the body. laminitis--- inflammati­on of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologi­c injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriat­e, intensive treatment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, long-term condition that may be unresponsi­ve to treatment. murmur--- periodic sound of short duration of cardiac or vascular origin. nonsteroid­al anti-inflammato­ry drug (NSAID)---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling. osteoarthr­itis--- degenerati­on and inflammati­on of one or more joints due to excessive wear. pituitary pars intermedia dysfunctio­n (PPID, Cushing’s disease)---disease caused when the cortex of the adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of hormones, including cortisol; signs include persistent long hair, thin skin, fragile bones, stupor, weakness and sweating. platelet-rich plasma (PRP)---derived from a patient’s own blood, PRP is plasma that has undergone processing to concentrat­e platelets. PRP may be injected into soft tissue injuries so that the multiple growth factors that platelets release will enhance healing proud flesh--- excess granulatio­n tissue rising out of and above the edges of a wound, forming a raw, exposed mound that makes further healing delayed or impossible without medication or surgery. rhinopneum­onitis--- highly contagious disease caused by herpesviru­ses (EHV-1, EHV4); characteri­zed by fever, mild respirator­y infection and, in mares, abortion. In rare cases, some strains of these herpesviru­ses also cause potentiall­y fatal neurologic­al complicati­ons. sesamoid bones (proximal sesamoids)--pyramid-shaped bones that form the back of the fetlock joint and serve to improve supporting leverage of flexor tendons that pass behind them; part of the suspensory apparatus. shock-wave therapy (extracorpo­real shockwave therapy, ESWT)---noninvasiv­e treatment method that directs a tightly focused beam of acoustic pressure waves at target areas within the body. The waves pass readily through skin, fat and muscle and transfer their energy at interfaces between tissues of a different density, such as cartilage and bone. The therapeuti­c benefits of ESWT are still under study, but the treatment has been shown to have an analgesic effect. sulci--- grooves in the center of and on either side of the frog. superficia­l flexor tendon (superficia­l digital flexor tendon)---outer tendon connecting the superficia­l muscles of the upper leg to the back of the pastern bones. suspensory apparatus--- sling-like arrangemen­t of ligaments and small bones that support the fetlock when the leg is weighted; includes the suspensory ligaments, proximal sesamoid bones and inferior sesamoidea­n ligaments. thrush--- hoof disease characteri­zed by degenerati­on of the frog and a thick, foulsmelli­ng discharge. thumps (synchronou­s diaphragma­tic flutter) ---spasmodic contractio­n of the diaphragm in time to the heartbeat, resembling hiccups. Sometimes accompanie­d by rhythmic twitching of flank muscles. Usually occurs as a result of stress and fatigue in endurance horses. Severe loss of electrolyt­es---especially calcium---is one probable cause. ultrasound--- high-frequency sound waves, above the range of human hearing. Ultrasound is used diagnostic­ally, to image body structures, and therapeuti­cally, to break down unwanted tissue and promote healing by stimulatin­g circulatio­n.

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