Field and Stream
A look at 125 years of conservation milestones, starting with F&S’s initial pleas for fish and wildlife protections
• The first issue of FIELD & STREAM is published. From the beginning, the magazine calls for shorter seasons, smaller bag limits, uniform game laws, and a universal excise tax to pay for conservation measures and enforcement.
• The Lacey Act prohibits the trade of wildlife taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of international or domestic regulations. Over 100 years later, it remains our most potent check on poaching.
Teddy Roosevelt, 42, is sworn into office following the assassination of William McKinley.
FIELD & STREAM hails “Our Sportsman President.” Roosevelt appoints Gifford Pinchot as the first director of the new Forest Service. Pinchot popularizes the term conservation.
John Muir publishes Our National Parks, writing: “Thousands of tired, nerve-shaken, over-civilized people are beginning to find out that going to the mountains is going home: that wildness is a necessity.”
• By executive order, President Roosevelt creates the country’s first national wildlife refuge, Pelican Island in Florida.
Congress passes the Antiquities Act, which Roosevelt uses to proclaim millions of acres as “national monuments,” including the Grand Canyon and Katmai National Park and Preserve in Alaska.
• Roosevelt leaves office having created 51 refuges, five national parks, 18 national monuments, four game preserves, and 150 national forests—totaling
230 million acres.
• FIELD & STREAM becomes the official organ of The Camp
Fire Club, a sportsman’s society whose members included Roosevelt, Zane Grey, and Ernest Thompson Seton. The club spearheads efforts to create Glacier National
Park and end the sale of game in New York state.
• Pennsylvania becomes the first state to issue a hunting license.
• The Weeks-McLean Act gives the government authority over the hunting of migratory gamebirds. The first such regulations are adopted.
Woodrow Wilson creates the National Park Service.
Bird Treaty Act establishes formal cooperation between the U.S. and Canada for the purpose of protecting waterfowl migrating between the two countries.
The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, known as the “Duck Stamp Act,” is passed by Congress. First proposed by FIELD & STREAM editor Ray P. Holland and the magazine’s Conservation Council, the law requires waterfowl hunters to purchase a stamp each year to help fund the protection of waterfowl habitat. Since 1934, 6 million acres have been acquired and more than 300 national wildlife refuges have been created or expanded using Federal Duck Stamp dollars.
• Ducks Unlimited is founded. To date, DU has conserved at least 12.5 million acres of waterfowl habitat in North America.
• Jay Norwood “Ding” Darling, outdoorsman and Pulitzer Prize–winning political cartoonist, creates the General Wildlife Federation. Later called the National Wildlife Federation, it is the nation’s largest grassroots conservation organization.
Congress passes the Pittman-Robertson Act, a tax on guns, ammunition, and archery equipment that has, to date, raised more than $12 billion to benefit wildlife and their habitat. The act proved seminal in bringing whitetail deer, wild turkeys, wood ducks, and other game species back from the brink of extinction.
Aldo Leopold publishes A Sand County Almanac, which becomes one of the cornerstones of modern conservation. The book still sells about 40,000 copies a year.
• The Dingell-Johnson Act authorizes an excise tax on fishing equipment and funnels a portion of license sales to create the Sport Fish Restoration and Boating Trust Fund, which has since raised $30.5 billion to support fisheries management.
• Trout Unlimited is founded.
Biologist Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, which leads to a 1972 ban on the sale of DDT in the U.S.
• The Wilderness Act is signed into law, designating 9.1 million acres as wilderness in 13 states. Today there are over 100 million acres of federally protected wilderness, offering myriad hunting and fishing opportunities.
• First Earth Day.
• President Nixon forms the Environmental Protection Agency to enforce laws that protect the environment and public health.
• The Clean Water Act is passed by Congress, placing a limit on the flow of raw sewage into rivers, lakes, and streams.
The National Wild Turkey Federation is founded.
• The Endangered Species Act is enacted.
The Conservation Reserve Program
begins, incentivizing landowners to revert marginal cropland to native grasses, creating millions of acres of habitat for deer, turkeys, ducks, pheasants, and quail.
The North American Wetlands Conservation Act passes. To date, the act has funded more than 3,000 projects totaling $1.8 billion in grants. More than 6,300 partners have contributed another $3.67 billion in matching funds.
Wolves are reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.
• The Farm Bill includes its first Conservation Title, incentivizing farmers to protect fish and wildlife habitat.
• The Roadless Area
Conservation Policy is created to conserve the remaining unprotected roadless areas in the National Forest System.
Hunters and anglers spearhead the #keepit
public social-media campaign to defeat a coordinated push to transfer federal public lands to the states. The final nail comes in 2017 with then-Rep. Jason Chaffetz’s withdrawal of H.R. 621, after an overwhelming public outcry.
The Modern Fish Act passes, properly recognizing the economic value of recreational fishing and realigning federal fisheries management accordingly.
• The Great American
Outdoors Act is signed into law. It permanently funds the Land and Water Conservation Fund at its highest possible amount— $900 million annually— to improve habitat and access on public lands in every state of the nation.