When fermenting vegetables, dry salting refers to massaging or mixing salt into fresh produce to draw out the liquid from the produce naturally. The liquid that is created through dry salting is the natural brine that you will ferment with. To make a brine when fermenting refers to dissolving salt in water, which will be used to submerge the produce in. Starter cultures are living microorganisms that help to kick off fermentation, usually called for when making dairy ferments such as yogurt or cheese. Starter cultures are not required when fermenting vegetables. You may use various types of salt when fermenting, just reference a salt conversion chart to see how different grains measure.