HUPEOE Eeglnnlngs neeg nrt chart Iuture accrpsolshpents
,n these ecRnRPLc GLIficuOt times, both President Obama and Governor Romney are aware that having a job might Ee the PRst LPSRrtant gRaO IRr Americans.
Sometimes, however, parents anG IrLenGs recRPPenG just IROORwLng Ln the IaPLOy’s IRRtsteSs LnsteaG RI ORRkLng Rver the hRrizon for something different. A taLORr’s sRn shRuOG Ee a taLORr; a Eutcher’s RIIsSrLng shRuOG Oearn the Peat EusLness.
ThLs Ls aOO weOO anG gRRG Eut a Sarent shRuOG suSSRrt a chLOG who has never-ending determinatLRn tR finG success Ln anRther direction.
Leon Lederman was born in New YRrk CLty Ln 1922. HLs Sarents were RussLan--ewLsh LPPLgrants anG hLs Iather’s RccuSatLRn was a hanG OaunGry. LeRn graGuateG IrRP a hLgh schRRO Ln the SRuth BrRnx anG went Rn tR get a EacheORr’s Gegree IrRP the CLty CROOege RI New YRrk Ln 1943.
He sSent three years Ln the ArPy GurLng WRrOG War ,, anG caPe Eack anG attenGeG CROuPELa UnLversLty, where he receLveG a Paster’s Gegree Ln 1948 anG a Ph.D. Ln 1951.
At CROuPELa, LeGerman became a professRr RI ShysLcs. ,n 1956 Lederman discovered a new atRPLc SartLcOe. ,n 1962, wLth twR cROOeagues, he GLscRvereG a suEatRPLc SartLcOe, the PuRn neutrLnR. The neutrLnR has nR eOectric charge and passes thrRugh everythLng Ln the unLverse LncOuGLng Earth.
,n 1977 he GLscRvereG anRther suEatRPLc SartLcOe knRwn as the ERttRP Tuark. These SartLcOes are the EuLOGLng EORcks RI SrRtRns anG neutrRns IRunG Ln atRPs.
,n 1993 LeGerPan wrRte a PRst successIuO ERRk caOOeG, “The GRG PartLcOe. ,I the UnL- verse Ls the Answer What Ls the QuestLRn?” The ERRk was cRauthRreG wLth DLck TeresL. The ERRk GLscusses sRPethLng caOOeG the HLggs SartLcOe, whLch was just GLscRvereG Ln 2012. CRsPRORgLsts anG SartLcOe ShysLcLsts have Eeen ORRkLng IRr the HLggs SartLcOe IRr nearOy three Gecades. It gives mass to atRPLc SartLcOes anG LI nRt IRunG, wRuOG have reTuLreG SartLcOe Shysics to be rewritten.
NR Rne wRuOG have thRught that a chLOG IrRP the BrRnx wRuOG have become one of the PRst IaPRus ShysLcLsts Ln hLstory.
,t takes an Lnner GrLvLng IRrce, the neeG tR Oearn anG Serseverance. We wRnGer hRw Pany Rther chLOGren PLght have sLPLOar accRPSOLshPents.
SROvLng SrREOePs that PLght never have a rewarGLng use Ls a reaO chaOOenge. Even nRw the GRG SartLcOe (naPeG Ey LeGerPan) PLght nRt finG use.
We Sresent a OLst RI strange Iacts aERut Rur unLverse that stLOO neeG exSOaLnLng:
NeutrLnRs are suEatRPLc SartLcOes that GRn’t carry any eOectrLc charge. Because RI that they can Sass rLght thrRugh the Earth wLthRut sORwLng GRwn Rr LnteractLng.
Dark Patter: ThLs Pakes uS 23 Sercent RI the Pass-energy cRntent RI the unLverse. SurSrLsLngOy, aOO the stars anG SOanets, LI Sut tRgether, RnOy Pake uS 4.6 Sercent RI aOO the Patter Ln the unLverse. AnG we thLnk there’s a ORt RI stars Rut Rn a Gark nLght Ln the cRuntry!
Dark energy: an unknRwn entLty resSRnsLEOe IRr the exSansLRn RI the unLverse. ,t Ls thRught tR cause Rur unLverse tR exSanG anG RverSRwer gravLty’s attraction.
BeIRre the BLg Bang: AccRrGLng tR Rne theRry, the unLverse cRnsLsts RI Pany EuEEOes anG when Rne Eursts, a unLverse as we knRw Lt cRPes LntR exLstence. There may be many of these PuOtLverses Rut there.
EntangOePent: SartLcOes that are entangOeG Pay Ee Rn RSSRsLte sLGes RI the unLverse. When Rne SartLcOe Ls turneG, the SartLcOe Rn the RSSRsLte sLGe RI the unLverse aOsR turns. These are farther apart than the speed of OLght cRuOG traveO tR exSOaLn hRw they interact.
Saturn: The secRnG Oargest SOanet Ln Rur sROar systeP has such a ORw cRncentratLRn RI Patter, Lt cRuOG flRat Ln a EathtuE RI water LI there were a tuE Oarge enRugh.
The unLverse Ls a strange SOace. We knRw a ORt aERut Lt Eut each year the nuPEer RI unanswereG TuestLRns seePs tR Lncrease. Perhaps someone reading this cROuPn wLOO GeveORS a OLIetLPe Lnterest Ln suEatRPLc SartLcOes and come forth with more answers aERut Rur unLverse, OLke another Leon Lederman.
Health & Science Dr. Milton Friedman