To­day is Thurs­day, June 18, the 170th day of 2020. There are 196 days left in the year.

On June 18, 1983, as­tro­naut Sally K. Ride be­came Amer­ica’s first woman in space as she and four col­leagues blasted off aboard the space shut­tle Challenger on a six-day mis­sion.

In 1812, the War of 1812 be­gan as the U.S. Congress ap­proved, and Pres­i­dent James Madi­son signed, a dec­la­ra­tion of war against Bri­tain.

In 1815, Napoleon Bon­a­parte met de­feat at Water­loo as Bri­tish and Prus­sian troops de­feated the French in Bel­gium.

In 1940, dur­ing World War II, Bri­tish Prime Min­is­ter Win­ston Churchill urged his coun­try­men to con­duct them­selves in a man­ner that would prompt fu­ture gen­er­a­tions to say, “This was their finest hour.”

In 1953, a U.S. Air Force Dou­glas C-124 Globe­mas­ter II crashed near Tokyo, killing all 129 peo­ple on board. Egypt’s 148-yearold Muham­mad Ali dy­nasty came to an end with the over­throw of the monar­chy and the procla­ma­tion of a repub­lic.

In 1964, Pres­i­dent Lyn­don B. John­son and Ja­panese Prime Min­is­ter Hay­ato Ikeda spoke to each other by tele­phone as they in­au­gu­rated the first trans-Pa­cific ca­ble com­pleted by AT&T be­tween Ja­pan and Hawaii.

In 1971, South­west Air­lines be­gan op­er­a­tions, with flights be­tween Dal­las and San An­to­nio, and Dal­las and Hous­ton.

In 1979, Pres­i­dent Jimmy Carter and Soviet Pres­i­dent Leonid I. Brezh­nev signed the SALT II strate­gic arms lim­i­ta­tion treaty in Vi­enna.

In 1992, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Ge­or­gia v. McCol­lum, ruled that crim­i­nal de­fen­dants could not use race as a ba­sis for ex­clud­ing po­ten­tial jurors from their tri­als.

In 1996, Richard Allen Davis was con­victed in

San Jose, Calif., of the 1993 kid­nap-mur­der of 12-yearold Polly Klaas of Pe­taluma. (Davis re­mains on death row.)

In 2007, nine fire­fight­ers died in a fire at a fur­ni­ture store and ware­house in Charleston, S.C.

In 2018, Pres­i­dent Don­ald Trump an­nounced he was di­rect­ing the Pen­tagon to cre­ate the “Space Force” as an in­de­pen­dent ser­vice branch.

Ten years ago: Death row in­mate Ron­nie Lee Gard­ner died in a bar­rage of bul­lets as Utah car­ried out its first fir­ing squad ex­e­cu­tion in 14 years. (Gard­ner had been sen­tenced to death for fa­tally shoot­ing at­tor­ney Michael Bur­dell dur­ing a failed es­cape at­tempt from a Salt Lake

City court­house.)

Five years ago: In duel­ing de­ci­sions about free speech, the Supreme Court up­held Texas’ re­fusal to is­sue a li­cense plate bear­ing the Con­fed­er­ate

bat­tle flag and struck down an Ari­zona town’s re­stric­tions on tem­po­rary signs put up by a small church.

One year ago: Pres­i­dent Don­ald Trump of­fi­cially kicked off his re-elec­tion cam­paign at a rally at­tended by thou­sands in Or­lando, Fla. Trump an­nounced that Act­ing Sec­re­tary of De­fense Pa­trick Shana­han was with­draw­ing his nom­i­na­tion to lead the Pen­tagon, and that the Sec­re­tary of the Army, Mark Esper, would be the new act­ing sec­re­tary. (Esper was con­firmed in July as sec­re­tary of de­fense.) Pa­cific Gas & Elec­tric agreed to pay $1 bil­lion to 14 lo­cal gov­ern­ments to cover dam­age from a se­ries of deadly wild­fires caused by its downed power lines.

To­day’s Birthdays: For­mer Sen. Jay Rock­e­feller, D-W.Va., is 83. Base­ball Hall of Famer Lou Brock is 81. Sir Paul Mc­Cart­ney is 78. Ac­tress Is­abella Ros­sellini is 68. Ac­tress Carol Kane is 68. Ac­tor Brian Ben­ben is 64. Ac­tress An­drea Evans is 63. Rock singer Ali­son Moyet is

59. Mu­si­cian Dizzy Reed (Guns N’ Roses) is 57. Fig­ure skater Kurt Brown­ing is 54. Singer Nathan Mor­ris (Boyz II Men) is

49. Singer-song­writer Ray LaMon­tagne is 47. Coun­try singer Blake Shel­ton is 44.

Thought for To­day:

“Most of the suc­cess­ful peo­ple I’ve known are the ones who do more lis­ten­ing than talk­ing.” — Bernard M. Baruch, Amer­i­can busi­ness­man and states­man (1870-1965).

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