Richmond Times-Dispatch

Germanymar­king 75th anniversar­y of Nuremberg trials for war crimes

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BERLIN— Seventy-five years ago, the dock of Courtroom 600 of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice was packed with some of the most nefarious figures of the 20th century: Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop and 18 other high-ranking Nazis.

They weren’t yet known as war criminals — it was a charge that didn’t exist until the Nuremberg trials began on Nov. 20, 1945, in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of internatio­nal law.

The proceeding­s broke ground in holding government leaders individual­ly responsibl­e for their aggression and slaughter of millions of innocents. In addition to establishi­ng the offense of war crimes, it produced the charges of crimes against peace, waging a war of aggression, and crimes against humanity, whose legacies live on in the current Internatio­nal Criminal Court.

Nuremberg was the city where Adolf Hitler reviewed torchlight Nazi party rallies and promulgate­d the race laws of 1935 that paved the way for the Holocaust.

The choice to use the city’s Palace of Justice for the trials was less symbolic than pragmatic, as it was one of the few large buildings left undamaged by Allied bombing during the war.

The testimony of hundreds of witnesses was heard over 218 trial days. One of them was Rudolf Höss, the Auschwitz death camp commandant, who “reacted to the order to slaughter human beings as he would have to an order to fell trees,” wrote U.S. prosecutor Whitney R. Harris.

Chief U.S. prosecutor Robert Jackson and his colleagues also had the Nazis’ own meticulous records to work

from, quoting document after document in “laying bare the workings of the German conspiracy,” Associated Press correspond­ent Daniel De Luce reported from the courtroom at the time.

On Oct. 1, 1946, Göring, Hitler’s air force chief and right-hand man, was sentenced to death along with 11 others, including Martin Bormann, Hitler’s deputy, who was tried in absentia. Bormann is now known to have died in Berlin in 1945 as he tried to flee the Red Army. Seven drew long prison sentences and three were acquitted.

Fifteen days later, the condemned men were hanged in the courthouse’s adjacent prison. Göring committed suicide by swallowing a poison pill in his cell the night before.

One of the last surviving witnesses to the trial, Emilio DiPalma, died earlier this year after contractin­g the coronaviru­s in the care home where he lived in Massachuse­tts.

After fighting the Germans on the front lines during the war, DiPalma found himself at age 19 being tasked to serve as a guard in the courtroom, where he stood at the witness box with his arms clasped behind his back while Hitler’s deputies were grilled about their atrocities.

“To this day, I can hardly believe that any human being could do such cruel things to another,” DiPalma wrote in his memoirs.

The city of Nuremberg is marking the anniversar­y in Courtroom 600 with a ceremony Friday that will include German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier as the guest of honor. Due to coronaviru­s restrictio­ns it will be closed to the public, but will be broadcast live on the internet including an English translatio­n.

 ?? THE ASSOCIATED PRESS ?? Awoman passes Congress Hall, a preserved landmark at the old Nazi Party rally grounds in Nuremberg, Germany. Six Nazi party rallies were held there between 1933 and 1938.
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Awoman passes Congress Hall, a preserved landmark at the old Nazi Party rally grounds in Nuremberg, Germany. Six Nazi party rallies were held there between 1933 and 1938.

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