What is Hanukkah?
“Although according to Jewish custom Hanukkah (or Chanukah) is considered a “minor” Jewish festival, today it ranks— along with Passover and Purim—as one of the most beloved Jewish holidays, full of light and joy and family celebration. “Unlike many Jewish holidays, Hanukkah (also known as the Festival of Lights) is not mentioned in the Bible. The historical events upon which the celebration is based are recorded in Maccabees I and II, two books contained within a later collection of writings known as the Apocrypha. “In the year 168 B.C.E., the Syrian king Antiochus Epiphanes sent his soldiers to Jerusalem. The Syrians desecrated the Temple, the holiest place for Jews at that time, (and) Antiochus ... abolished Judaism (and) offered Jews two options: conversion or death.
“The Temple was renamed for the Greek god Zeus. A Jewish resistance movement — led by a priestly family known as the Hasmoneans, or Maccabees — developed ... Though outnumbered, Judah Maccabee and his fighters miraculously won two major battles, routing the Syrians decisively. “Hanukkah, which means “dedication,” is the festival that commemorates the purification and rededication of the Temple following the Greek occupation of that holy place. Today, the holiday reminds Jews to rededicate themselves to keeping alive the flame of Jewish religion, culture, and peoplehood so that it may be passed on to the next generation. “Originally, the eight-day holiday was intended to parallel the eight-day festival of Sukkot. The Books of the Maccabees made no mention of the legend concerning a small jar of oil that unexpectedly lasted for eight days. Only centuries after the Maccabees’ defeat of the Syrians did the story of the jar of oil – which has come to be associated with Hanukkah – appear in the Talmud.
“According to the legend, when the Maccabees entered the Temple and began to reclaim it from the Greeks, they immediately relit the ner tamid (eternal light), which burned constantly in the Temple and has a parallel in our synagogues to this day. In the Temple, they found a single jar of oil, which was sufficient for only one day. The messenger who was sent to secure additional oil took eight days to complete his mission, and miraculously, the single jar of oil continued to burn until his return. The rabbis of the Talmud attributed the eight days of Hanukkah to the miracle of this single jar of oil.
“Although the practice of lighting the menorah (also called a hanukkiyah) was common throughout much of the 19th century, North American Jews tended to neglect most of the other traditions and practices associated with the holiday. By the 1920s, however, Jews increasingly added gift-giving to their Hanukkah celebrations, prompting some people to refer to Hanukkah as the “Jewish Christmas.”