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BIRTH­DAYS

Reg­gae singer Toots Hib­bert (Toots and the May­tals) is 70. Ac­tress Kim Basinger is 65. Coun­try singer Marty Ray­bon is 59. Political com­men­ta­tor Ann Coul­ter is 57. Rock mu­si­cian Marty Fried­man is 56. Ac­tor Wen­dell Pierce is 55. Ac­tress Teri Hatcher is 54. Singer Sinead O’Con­nor (AKA Shuhada’ Davitt) is 52. Ac­tor

Do­minic Mon­aghan is 42. Ac­tor Ian Somer­halder is 40. Rock singer In­grid Michael­son is 39. Coun­try singer Sam Hunt is 34. Rock singer-ac­tress Kate Voegele is 32. Chris­tian rock mu­si­cian Jen Ledger (Skil­let) is 29. Ac­tress

An­naSophia Robb is 25.

TO­DAY IN HIS­TORY

In 1854, Pope Pius IX pro­claimed the Catholic dogma of the Im­mac­u­late Con­cep­tion, which holds that Mary, the mother of Je­sus, was free of orig­i­nal sin from the mo­ment of her own con­cep­tion.

In 1863, Pres­i­dent Abra­ham Lin­coln is­sued his Procla­ma­tion of Amnesty and Re­con­struc­tion for the South.

In 1886, the Amer­i­can Fed­er­a­tion of La­bor was founded in Colum­bus, Ohio.

In 1972, a United Air­lines Boe­ing 737 crashed while at­tempt­ing to land at Chicago-Mid­way Air­port, killing 43 of the 61 peo­ple on board, as well as two peo­ple on the ground; among the dead were Dorothy Hunt, wife of Water­gate con­spir­a­tor E. Howard Hunt, U.S. Rep. Ge­orge W. Collins, D-Ill., and CBS News cor­re­spon­dent Michele Clark.

In 1980, rock star John Len­non was shot to death out­side his New York City apart­ment build­ing by an ap­par­ently de­ranged fan.

In 1982, a man de­mand­ing an end to nu­clear weapons held the Washington Mon­u­ment hostage, threat­en­ing to blow it up with ex­plo­sives he claimed were in­side a van. (Af­ter a 10-hour stand­off, Nor­man D. Mayer was shot dead by po­lice; it turned out there were no ex­plo­sives.)

In 1987, Pres­i­dent Ronald Rea­gan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gor­bachev signed a treaty at the White House call­ing for de­struc­tion of in­ter­me­di­ate-range nu­clear mis­siles.

In 1991, AIDS pa­tient Kim­berly Ber­galis, who had con­tracted the dis­ease from her den­tist, died in Fort Pierce, Fla., at age 23.

In 2001, the U.S. Capi­tol was re­opened to tourists af­ter a two-month se­cu­rity shut­down.

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