The Dallas Morning News



1861 The Civil War began as Confederat­e forces opened fire on Fort Sumter in South Carolina.

1877 The catcher’s mask was first used in a baseball game by James Tyng of Harvard in a game against the Lynn Live Oaks.

1945 President Franklin D. Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Warm Springs, Ga., at age 63; he was succeeded by Vice President Harry S. Truman.

1955 The Salk vaccine against polio was declared safe and effective.

1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to fly in space, orbiting the earth once before making a safe landing.

1963 Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and jailed in Birmingham, Ala., charged with contempt of court and parading without a permit. (During his time behind bars, King wrote his ‘‘Letter from Birmingham Jail.’’)

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