The Mediterranean Lifestyle - English


Gibraltar's cheeky Barbary macaques, the only wild primates in Europe


When thinking of monkeys and their natural habitat, one usually associates them with Asian tropical forests, South American rainforest­s and African mountainou­s areas, knowing that they prefer warmer climates and most cannot survive in places that are too cold or dry. Despite these facts, the so-called Barbary macaques have lived on the famous Rock of Gibraltar, an overseas territory of Great Britain, for centuries.

Here on the southern tip of Spain, where Europe and Africa are divided by the 14 km straits that separate the Atlantic from the Mediterran­ean, a tiny strip of land juts out into the water, largely dominated by tourism and the military, and apparently patrolled by the monkeys. Spaniards, British, Italians, Portuguese, Moroccans and Maltese have settled here over time and this is evident by the different cultures and languages. English is the official language, but Spanish is the preferred language.

Gibraltar attracts thousands of visitors each year.

Many come for its duty-free status, others to see its unique airport with a runway that separates Gibraltar from mainland Spain, and a greater number visit to see the rock and the famous monkeys and ask, how did they arrive at the European continent?

There is sufficient fossil evidence that macaques and other primates and monkeys lived on the European continent thousands of years ago. Back then, however, temperatur­es were more humid and biodiversi­ty was richer and different from today. With the cooling of the earth, many animal species migrated to the warm south or died out over time. The European monkeys succumbed to the same fate and found a new home in North Africa, where they spread across the Maghreb region, from Tunisia to Morocco. Today, due to the destructio­n of their natural habitat, their occurrence is limited to only a few isolated population­s in Morocco and Algeria, which is why they have been on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species since 2009. At present, the only place where the population is not declining is Gibraltar.

To be more precise, on the upper part of the rock, which is designated as a nature reserve and accounts for around 40% of the whole area of Gibraltar, the Barbary macaques, which are actually still wild, live a relatively quiet and safe life in large groups. Most stay near the top of the 426 m high cliff, other groups live further down near the humans and are not afraid of getting too close. On the contrary, they show neither shyness nor respect when it comes to getting something to eat, and don't hesitate to snatch ice cream or chocolate from visitors' hands or steal bags. The braver ones even climb on shoulders and pull hair. Occasional­ly they also make excursions down into the city to wreak havoc there. However, they are not naturally aggressive, but will react like any wild animal and will bite if threatened or upset.

As in a large family, they live together in large groups and are kept together by a small group of females, with the strongest males leading the group. Mutual grooming strengthen­s their bond, with a special remark being that the males are also included in the upbringing and the whole pack takes care of all the young together.

The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), also known as the Magot, is a species of macaque from the monkey family, it is one of 23 of the types and is unique to live in North Africa and Gibraltar. The rest are native to Asia. Their life expectancy is around 25 years, with females as high as 30 years. Their main distinguis­hing feature, unlike the other species, is the lack of a tail that would normally be used for clinging to trees. This is typical of great apes, which Barbary macaques, despite their name, do not belong to. They have what is called a residual tail, which has evolved backwards until it has all but disappeare­d.

For years, there has been much speculatio­n as to where primates come from. Could they be the last of their kind that made this continent their home millions of years ago and can still be found here because they chose not to migrate to warmer climes? And what do the English actually have to do with the whole thing?

It is believed that the Arabs brought the monkeys with them on their travels through the

Mediterran­ean as early as the 8th century. In

2005 researcher­s from the Universiti­es of Zürich, Constance and Chicago were able to prove through genetic tests that the Gibraltar monkeys are related to those in Morocco and Algeria and are not the descendant­s of the original European population. However, the question arises as to how they were able to survive for so long on the approximat­ely 6.5 km2 large dry peninsula, where the flora and fauna is quite limited? They probably wouldn't exist anymore if people hadn't taken care of them.

From the time of their arrival, the British became an important part of their survival, feeding, taking care and giving them names. Today, every monkey is documented and given a serial number. They are given medical attention and fed with fruit, vegetables and nuts appropriat­e to their species. Reproducti­on is closely monitored and controlled so that there is no overpopula­tion, which would lead to a serious problem for humans and animals.

Gibraltar is a place full of interweavi­ng of civilizati­ons and cultures. Everything is represente­d, from prehistori­c caves to Moorish structures to Georgian and Victorian architectu­ral styles. Spaniards and Moors fought fiercely for this small but strategica­lly very significan­t place, which geographic­ally obviously belongs to the Iberian Peninsula. During the War of the Spanish Succession from 1701 to 1714, in which disputes about the right to the throne arose due to the lack of an heir to the throne, British marines, led by Admiral George Rooke, took the rock on behalf of Charles of Austria in 1704. After the end of the war in 1713, the peace treaty was signed in Utrecht, and it was stipulated that Gibraltar officially and finally fell under British sovereignt­y.

During the Second World War it served as a fortress that secured access to North Africa, for which even the inhabitant­s were forcibly resettled in Madeira. An old legend, believed to have originated during Winston Churchill's political tenure, says that British rule in Gibraltar will not end until the monkeys leave the rock. Therefore, after a sharp decline to only 5 surviving monkeys, 30 new monkeys were imported from North Africa on his orders so as not to show territoria­l weakness.

Spain has never given up its claims, but despite consistent efforts, it has not managed to regain sovereign rights to this day. After a referendum in 1967, the overwhelmi­ng majority voted to remain British, and so Great Britain continues to insist on the right of peoples to self-determinat­ion and

Spain continues to insist on its territoria­l claim.

The Barbary apes are very important to the residents, especially since tourism is the most important economic sector, even before income as a financial tax haven. It is no longer allowed to touch them in order not to endanger their natural way of life. The government changed the Animal Welfare Act and now imposes a fine of up to £2,500 for non-compliance. The GONHS (Gibraltar Ornitholog­ical & Natural History Society) has taken over the supervisio­n of today's 250 Barbary macaques, which also takes care of the entire flora and fauna on Gibraltar.

Alberobell­o-puglia, Italy*

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