The Washington Post

In some nations, going back to school still isn’t an option

As remote learning resumes, teachers fear dire consequenc­es

- BY SAMMY WESTFALL sammy.westfall@washpost.com

Students across much of the world are trading in their Zoom windows for chalkboard­s, in a global moment of hope and apprehensi­on. In some places, including parts of the United States, many school doors that were shut for a year and a half have swung open, even amid resurgent coronaviru­s outbreaks.

In three countries — Bangladesh, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia — in-person schooling was paused nationally for 18 months. In the Philippine­s and Venezuela, there’s no end in sight.

Many of the countries with the longest pauses in classroom education were among those least equipped to transition to remote learning. Students are facing dire consequenc­es, teachers say.

On Monday, students across the Philippine­s began class, once again remotely, in their third school year marred by the pandemic.

For many teachers, the situation seems desperate, said Raymond Basilio, secretary general of the Alliance of Concerned Teachers, a large organizati­on of education workers in the Philippine­s.

Of the nation’s approximat­ely 27 million students, only about 14 percent participat­ed in online schooling last fall, according to a survey conducted in November.

More than three-fourths — including nearly all rural students — enrolled in a modular system: Every two weeks students or guardians must pick up their “modules,” stapled packets of worksheets, and return filled-out ones to their teachers.

Each module is usually 10 to 16 pages.

Families with resources, Basilio said, are more likely to have the means to buy sufficient Internet access and enroll their children in online school. They can also hire tutors to help their children keep up with unsupervis­ed lessons.

“That story is not the story for students who are the children of farmworker­s, children of fisherfolk or urban poor workers,” he said. In the Philippine­s, more than 17 million people live below the poverty line, according to the Asian Developmen­t Bank.

By some accounts, the modules are haphazard and difficult to understand, and schools came under criticism early in the pandemic for glaring mathematic­al and grammatica­l errors and bizarre questions and prompts.

“We’re very worried about our future,” Basilio said. “High school teachers will be in a very problemati­c scenario. How will they teach higher-order thinking skills if their students are not able to read, to write?”

In Venezuela, which along with the Philippine­s closed schools nationally early in the pandemic and is set to keep them that way, remote learning resumes this week.

Wuisneidys Delgado, a biology teacher in the small town of Aragua de Barcelona, has been teaching on video calls and Whatsapp. Not only do some students lack Internet or computer access, but some teachers don’t have smartphone­s either, she said.

Some Venezuelan teachers have been setting up informal, in-person classrooms in their homes as a last resort, news agency EFE reported. But experts are concerned that students have lost much of their opportunit­y to learn.

Globally, in-person learning has made a comeback since last year, said Borhene Chakroun, director for policies and lifelong learning systems at the U.N. Educationa­l, Scientific and Cultural Organizati­on (UNESCO). In 119 countries, students are attending school in person, up from 95 last September.

Some 8 percent of the world’s students are facing full school closures — down from 41 percent at this time last year. The UNESCO closure data does not include “partial reopening,” which could mean a few schools in a country are open.

Some countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Zimbabwe, have closed schools for certain age groups and grade levels, Chakroun said. Some, such as the Bahamas and Ecuador, have opened schools with reduced inperson class time. In some countries, such as Indonesia, Mexico and the United States, school status varies across state and regional lines.

The U.N. children’s agency, or UNICEF, found that the first-ever day of school for 140 million of the world’s youngest students has been delayed by the pandemic.

The World Bank, UNICEF and UNESCO launched Mission Recovering Education 2021 to urge government­s to bring all students back to school for complete or partial in-person instructio­n before the end of the year, arguing that the cost to students of remote learning outweighs the covid-19 risks.

Coronoviru­s infection rates remain high globally, but the coalition says schools can reopen with precaution­s “even when community transmissi­on hasn’t been completely contained and vaccinatio­n coverage is low,” citing lower transmissi­on rates and levels of covid severity for children.

Robert Jenkins, global director of education for UNICEF, told The Washington Post that the sheer magnitude and duration of the disruption is unparallel­ed, with 1.6 billion schoolchil­dren affected at the pandemic’s peak and some students facing school closures for more than 76 weeks.

Even amid the cyclones, floods and conflicts to which the agency has had to respond, “it would be almost unheard of for children to be out of school for such a long period,” he said, and the poor and marginaliz­ed have paid the steepest price.

For Rumena Afroza, a high school English teacher at a small rural school in central Bangladesh, the pause has been devastatin­g.

In March 2020, she set up a Facebook messenger group to coordinate remote learning for her students. Of the 188 in her two classes, she was unable to reach more than 20 on Zoom. When she asked that students make a distanced, in-person appearance to hear a lesson plan, only 80 could make it.

Some students had been sent to work in the fields or in garment factories. Others had just dropped out. Many female students were married.

“I told my students, ‘Don’t marry before 18,’ ” she said, but the pandemic has made waiting difficult for many families with daughters ages 14 to 17. The pandemic has increased the number of girls at risk of becoming child brides by 10 million, according to UNICEF.

Afroza was overjoyed when Bangladesh’s education minister announced that schools would reopen this week.

“Again we will be able to see the school garden full of flowers,” she said. “The parents who have become frustrated will dream again for their children in a new way. They will find the light of hope.”

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 ?? PHOTOS BY JAM STA ROSA/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES ?? ABOVE: Parents arrive this week to pick up materials for their children at a school in Quezon City ahead of another year of remote learning in the Philippine­s. RIGHT: Petronilo Pacayra Sr. signs school documents while his children, ages 9 and 10, look on at their home in Quezon City.
PHOTOS BY JAM STA ROSA/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE/GETTY IMAGES ABOVE: Parents arrive this week to pick up materials for their children at a school in Quezon City ahead of another year of remote learning in the Philippine­s. RIGHT: Petronilo Pacayra Sr. signs school documents while his children, ages 9 and 10, look on at their home in Quezon City.

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