Wit­nesses fill in the blanks

Hours of closed- door queries: What has been re­vealed so far

USA TODAY International Edition - - FRONT PAGE - Christal Hayes

WASH­ING­TON – Over the past month, more than a dozen wit­nesses have been called be­fore a trio of House com­mit­tees and ques­tioned for hours about Pres­i­dent Don­ald Trump and Ukraine.

Each has pro­vided de­tails and color in the quickly mov­ing im­peach­ment in­quiry ex­am­in­ing whether Trump abused his power as pres­i­dent in ask­ing Ukraine to in­ves­ti­gate a po­lit­i­cal op­po­nent while dan­gling mil­i­tary aid for the coun­try and a White House meet­ing. Their tes­ti­monies com­bined span about 100 hours.

Read in­side for the wit­nesses who have been in­ter­viewed by the House In­tel­li­gence, For­eign Affairs and Over­sight com­mit­tees, why they mat­ter in this saga and what we know about their tes­ti­mony.

Oct. 3: For­mer U. S. spe­cial en­voy to Ukraine Kurt Volker

A ca­reer State Depart­ment of­fi­cial, Volker worked with Pres­i­dent Don­ald Trump’s per­sonal lawyer Rudy Gi­u­liani and White House of­fi­cials to set up Trump’s phone call July 25 with Ukrainian Pres­i­dent Volodymyr Ze­len­sky and a po­ten­tial White House visit. Mil­i­tary aid for the coun­try was on pause.

Volker said he never saw any­thing that made him be­lieve there was a quid pro quo with Ukraine. His tes­ti­mony made clear the in­flu­ence Gi­u­liani had on pol­icy, in­clud­ing Gi­u­liani dic­tat­ing a state­ment to Volker that he wanted the Ukraini­ans to is­sue on cor­rup­tion.

Oct. 11: For­mer Ukraine am­bas­sador Marie Yo­vanovitch

A ca­reer diplo­mat, Yo­vanovitch was forced out of her role.

Yo­vanovitch was con­fused by her ouster and the com­ments made by con­ser­va­tives and Trump, who called her “bad news.” She said she raised con­cerns about the shadow cam­paign pushed by Gi­u­liani and how it ran counter to U. S. pol­icy.

Oct. 14: Trump’s for­mer Rus­sia ex­pert Fiona Hill

Hill worked for years on the Na­tional In­tel­li­gence Coun­cil and as Trump’s se­nior ad­viser on the Krem­lin and Europe. She held a key role in U. S. pol­icy in Ukraine and was part of sev­eral meet­ings where she ex­pressed con­cerns over the shadow pol­icy led by Gi­u­liani and White House act­ing Chief of Staff Mick Mul­vaney.

Hill told law­mak­ers na­tional se­cu­rity ad­viser John Bolton likened the pol­icy in Ukraine to a “drug deal” and called Gi­u­liani a “hand gre­nade” who was go­ing to blow every­one up, ac­cord­ing to The New York Times and NBC News.

Oct. 15: State Depart­ment Ukraine- Rus­sia ex­pert Ge­orge Kent

Kent serves as a deputy as­sis­tant sec­re­tary at the State Depart­ment.

Kent told law­mak­ers he raised red flags about Gi­u­liani’s ef­forts to pres­sure Ukraine to in­ves­ti­gate for­mer Vice Pres­i­dent Joe Bi­den, a front- run­ner for the Demo­cratic pres­i­den­tial nom­i­na­tion, more than six months ago.

Oct. 16: Michael McKin­ley, ex- ad­viser to Sec­re­tary of State Mike Pom­peo

McKin­ley boasted a ca­reer that spanned decades at the State Depart­ment and re­signed just be­fore his tes­ti­mony be­cause of low morale at the depart­ment and be­cause he said Pom­peo did not stick up for ca­reer em­ploy­ees, such as Yo­vanovitch.

McKin­ley didn’t over­see is­sues re­lated to Ukraine, so his tes­ti­mony did not deal with the core al­le­ga­tions against Trump. He out­lined his con­cerns about the ouster of Yo­vanovitch and said he was trou­bled that the State Depart­ment did not have her back and that she and the depart­ment were be­ing politi­cized.

Oct. 17: U. S. am­bas­sador to the Eu­ro­pean Union Gor­don Sond­land

A busi­ness­man and ma­jor Trump donor, Sond­land was in com­mu­ni­ca­tion with the pres­i­dent and Gi­u­liani and at­tempted to get Ukraini­ans to in­ves­ti­gate sev­eral po­lit­i­cal mat­ters, ac­cord­ing to wit­nesses.

Sond­land told law­mak­ers he com­mu­ni­cated a quid pro quo to a Ukrainian of­fi­cial, link­ing mil­i­tary aid for Ukraine to a pub­lic state­ment com­mit­ting to in­ves­ti­ga­tions Trump and Gi­u­liani wanted.

Oct. 22: Bill Tay­lor, top U. S. diplo­mat in Ukraine

Tay­lor voiced con­cerns about con­di­tion­ing mil­i­tary aid and a White House meet­ing on in­ves­ti­ga­tion of a Trump po­lit­i­cal ri­val.

Tay­lor di­rectly tied Trump and his al­lies with a quid pro quo. He said Trump made the order to pause mil­i­tary aid for Ukraine, and it was his “clear un­der­stand­ing” that “se­cu­rity as­sis­tance money would not come un­til the ( Ukrainian) pres­i­dent com­mit­ted to pur­sue the in­ves­ti­ga­tion,” ac­cord­ing to a tran­script of his tes­ti­mony.

Oct. 23: De­fense of­fi­cial Laura Cooper

Cooper serves as the deputy as­sis­tant sec­re­tary of de­fense for Rus­sia, Ukraine and Eura­sia.

Oct. 26: State Depart­ment of­fi­cial Philip Reeker

Reeker serves as the act­ing as­sis­tant sec­re­tary of state in the Bureau of Eu­ro­pean and Eurasian Af­fairs.

Ac­cord­ing to The Wall Street Jour­nal, he dis­cussed with law­mak­ers failed ef­forts to help Yo­vanovitch.

Oct. 29: Ukraine ex­pert Lt. Col. Alexan­der Vindman

Vindman is one of sev­eral of­fi­cials who lis­tened to Trump’s phone call with Ze­len­sky on July 25. He served as the

White House’s top Ukraine ex­pert.

Vindman said in pre­pared re­marks he twice re­ported con­cerns to su­pe­ri­ors that the pres­i­dent and those work­ing for him linked for­eign aid to Ukraine with po­lit­i­cal in­ves­ti­ga­tions. He said he wor­ried the ef­forts un­der­mined U. S. na­tional se­cu­rity.

Oct. 30: State Depart­ment of­fi­cial Cather­ine Croft

Croft worked for Volker at the State Depart­ment and has ex­per­tise on Ukrainian is­sues. She fo­cused on arms sales and se­cu­rity as­sis­tance for the coun­try as it fended off Rus­sia.

Ac­cord­ing to a copy of her open­ing state­ment, Croft told law­mak­ers she re­ceived calls from a lob­by­ist try­ing to oust Yo­vanovitch. She said she learned that aid was put on hold stem­ming from an order from the pres­i­dent.

Oct. 30: State Depart­ment of­fi­cial Christo­pher An­der­son

An­der­son worked for Volker at the State Depart­ment and was present for at least one meet­ing where po­lit­i­cal in­ves­ti­ga­tions were dis­cussed.

In his open­ing state­ment, An­der­son said Gi­u­liani’s ef­forts were dis­cussed at a Ukraine strat­egy meet­ing over the sum­mer. At that meet­ing, Bolton said Gi­u­liani’s ef­forts “could be an ob­sta­cle.” An­der­son said he be­lieved it was im­por­tant to not re­quest spe­cific in­ves­ti­ga­tions from the Ukraini­ans.

Oct. 31: NSC of­fi­cial Ti­mothy Mor­ri­son

Mor­ri­son is the top Rus­sia and Eu­ro­pean ad­viser to Trump’s Na­tional Se­cu­rity Coun­cil and was cited by mul­ti­ple wit­nesses in con­ver­sa­tions about a quid pro quo. He is a po­lit­i­cal ap­pointee and not a ca­reer of­fi­cial.

Mor­ri­son con­firmed tes­ti­mony given by Tay­lor that out­lined a quid pro quo. Mor­ri­son tes­ti­fied that he didn’t be­lieve Trump’s call July 25 was il­le­gal.

Nov. 6: State Depart­ment of­fi­cial David Hale

Hale is the third high­est- rank­ing of­fi­cial at the State Depart­ment.

Hale told law­mak­ers about the po­lit­i­cal con­sid­er­a­tions in dis­miss­ing Yo­vanovitch and how those de­ci­sions af­fected mil­i­tary aid for Ukraine, ac­cord­ing to The As­so­ci­ated Press. AP re­ported that Hale said Pom­peo and other of­fi­cials be­lieved that back­ing Yo­vanovitch could hurt ef­forts to free the mil­i­tary aid, and some of­fi­cials wor­ried about the re­ac­tion from Gi­u­liani.

Read wit­nesses’ tes­ti­mony at im­peach­ment docs. us­ato­day . com.

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