USA TODAY International Edition

Biden aims to rally US allies

Economy, climate, defense top issues at Europe summit

- Kim Hjelmgaard

FALMOUTH, England – President Joe Biden is spending the next week in Europe, participat­ing in summits in the United Kingdom, Belgium and Switzerlan­d as part of his first overseas trip as president and first big moment on the world stage since taking office.

The majority of U. S. presidents have visited close neighbors Canada or Mexico for their maiden journeys abroad. Biden becomes only the second president since Jimmy Carter to begin his inaugural overseas trip in the U. K., for a G- 7 meeting in Cornwall, England. He will then join a NATO summit in Brussels, followed by a highly anticipate­d meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, a leader he actively dislikes, in Geneva.

The G- 7 leaders of the world’s seven wealthy industrial­ized nations were

set to meet in June last year at Camp David, the presidenti­al retreat in Maryland, but the coronaviru­s outbreak hobbled those plans. The June 11- 13 makeup summit in Carbis Bay, Cornwall, a region on the tip of southweste­rn England noted for its wild coastal scenery, will be the leaders’ first face- to- face meeting in more than two years.

There is a lot to talk about. Among the highlights: getting the global economy back on track in the wake of the coronaviru­s pandemic that is still firmly entrenched in most parts of the world; climate change; defense and security; and easier – though no less important – talking about the solidarity, multilater­alism and shared democratic values that many close European allies felt had all but vanished under former President Donald Trump’s administra­tion.

It’s not an exaggerati­on to say that Trump often sowed chaos at internatio­nal summits. He stormed out of a G- 7 summit in Canada in 2018, routinely accused NATO of leeching off the U. S., cozied up to authoritar­ian leaders and insulted the European Union.

“This trip will highlight ( Biden’s) commitment to ... working in close cooperatio­n with our allies and multilater­al partners to address global challenges and better secure America’s interests,” White House press secretary Jen Psaki said before the trip.

Biden offered more rousing words, if not detail, in a Washington Post op- ed headlined, “My trip to Europe is about America rallying the world’s democracie­s.”

In the opinion piece, Biden argued that, “this is a defining question of our time: Can democracie­s come together to deliver real results for our people in a rapidly changing world? Will the democratic alliances and institutio­ns that shaped so much of the last century prove their capacity against modernday threats and adversarie­s? I believe the answer is yes. And this week in Europe, we have the chance to prove it.”

Still, Brett Bruen, a former diplomat in the Obama administra­tion and now president of Global Situation Room, a crisis and reputation management firm based in Washington, said that Biden heads overseas “as the glow and goodwill generated by his ascension to presidency begins to fade globally.” Bruen said world leaders “are feeling frustrated by the often detached diplomacy he has practiced over his first months in office.”

Bruen cited Biden’s decision to push ahead with withdrawin­g all U. S. troops from Afghanista­n by Sept. 11 despite concerns the move could embolden an already resurgent Taliban, and his administra­tion’s relatively meek initial response to renewed fighting last month between Israelis and Palestinia­ns in the Gaza Strip.

“His priority appears placed on disengagem­ent and diminishin­g American involvemen­t in challengin­g internatio­nal issues. Meanwhile, he seems fiercely focused on domestic concerns and considerat­ions. This is likely to be a source of some friction,” Bruen said.

There is also concern, said Rachel Ellehuus, a former Pentagon official, about what could happen if Biden turns out to be a one- term president.

“They worry that some of the negative language about allies and partners and the U. S. commitment to NATO and global leadership could falter again,” she said.

But Charles Kupchan, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations think tank in New York, said Biden has gotten off to a good start on the world stage. He pointed to Biden’s move to rejoin the Paris climate agreement from which Trump withdrew and ongoing indirect negotiatio­ns with Iran for a full resumption of the nuclear accord.

“He has a lot of wind in his sails just by being Joe Biden, and not Donald Trump. Many government­s and leaders around the world are breathing massive sighs of relief to have someone more familiar and more trusted in the White House,” Kupchan said.

China looms large

Kupchan said the G- 7 summit will be a “reunion of sorts” and a “kind of coming- out party for the Biden presidency.” He said he expects G- 7 leaders to make concrete progress with plans to share more coronaviru­s vaccines with nations that have fragile and under- resourced health systems. He foresaw some action to tackle a paucity of global regulation around cryptocurr­encies and other digital assets, and perhaps the beginnings of an attempt to “forge a common position on China.”

Beijing is an economic colossus. Its technologi­cal capabiliti­es combined with its growing geopolitic­al assertiven­ess and military prowess mean China is viewed by many Western countries as the major, if not most serious, national security threat that they will likely face for decades to come.

But Kupchan cautioned that while the G- 7 forum is increasing­ly being used to address geopolitic­al concerns, its chief remit is economic and monetary matters. And while Biden’s return to the confab is being welcomed, this doesn’t mean the summit’s “atmospheri­cs” or “deliverabl­es” will be entirely positive or a foregone conclusion.

“There are divisions within Europe and across the Atlantic about how best to cope with the rise of China, so when Biden says he wants to build a united front of democracie­s to stand up to China: He’s right. We do need that. But it’s not going to be easy to ( accomplish) consensus across the many issues at play.”

Shifting ‘ strategic center of gravity’

A British official not authorized to speak publicly about the G- 7 summit said the meeting, as is typical of global summits of this kind, would likely be dominated publicly by “live events” – whatever’s grabbing foreign affairs headlines that day or week, whether in Myanmar, Belarus or Russian cyberattac­ks or aggression­s in Ukraine.

But the official added that the summit was a genuine opportunit­y to “shift the strategic center of gravity” longer term on various global issues ranging from improving girls’ access to education to agreeing on minimum internatio­nal corporate tax rates.

G- 7 finance ministers who met ahead of the summit said they had already agreed on a landmark deal that would see a minimum rate of corporatio­n tax of at least 15% placed on multinatio­nal companies, including tech giants like Amazon, Apple and Microsoft.

Biden and other leaders in Cornwall are expected to sign off on the proposal that would make sure corporatio­ns pay taxes in the countries where they sell products and services, not just where they decide to base their operations. The move sits well with Biden’s domestic pledge to spend more on social safety net programs and infrastruc­ture and make America’s wealthiest individual­s and businesses help pay for it.

Biden has said again and again that he views a strong middle class as a prerequisi­te for a stable democracy and that the tax move bolsters one of the central planks of his proposed foreign policy: to connect the fortunes of Americans at home to U. S. action abroad.

The British official said the G- 7 meeting was an opportunit­y to “reinvigora­te internatio­nal action” after a few years of relative stalemate because of the coronaviru­s pandemic.

“It’s about how we make the recovery out of COVID work for people in all our countries ... and how we shape those plans in a way that allows us to tackle the big political trends ... in a way that reflects our values as open societies,” the official said.

On Thursday, Biden meets with British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, where he will raise the question of how Brexit, the U. K.’ s withdrawal from the European Union, could affect the Good Friday Agreement, the peace deal in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is part of the U. K. but Ireland is not. It’s in the EU. Borderless trade across the EU political bloc has partially underwritt­en stability on the Irish border for several decades.

Pushing allies on defense spending?

One place where U. S. and European divisions may arise is Brussels, where Biden will attend the NATO meeting June 14.

When Trump visited the military alliance’s headquarte­rs in Belgium in May 2017, he did his best to harangue allies and avoid explicitly recommitti­ng to Article 5, the principle of mutual defense that is the bedrock of the transatlan­tic military alliance.

Biden will almost certainly unequivoca­lly reaffirm the integrity and solidity of the NATO alliance and American security guarantee, but he won’t be able to paper over a longstandi­ng crack: More NATO countries still need to increase their military spending to meet the alliance’s agreed spending targets of 2% of economic output.

According to the latest NATO estimates, just 11 of 30 countries do.

“The optics of no Trump presence ( in Brussels) will be interestin­g to observe. Clearly, Europeans disliked his coercive approach and unstatesma­nlike rhetoric,” said Andris Banka, a Latvian- born professor of internatio­nal politics at the University of Greifswald in Germany. “That said, I think Europeans will be pressed further to meet the 2% ( defense spending) goal, this time arguably by the most trans- atlanticis­t U. S. president.”

The U. S. also wants NATO to more actively push back against Russia’s activities in Ukraine as well as its use of cyber warfare and disinforma­tion.

“Every time you listen to NATO talk about cyber, it’s cyberdefen­se, defend, increase our defense, thicken our defense, do some more defense. The fact of the matter is, what’s not being talked about is imposing costs on Russia. Why would Russia change its behavior if there is no cost to it for its behavior?” asked Philip M. Breedlove, a retired four- star general in the U. S. Air Force who also served as NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander for Europe from 20132016. “What we don’t talk about in NATO is cyber offense. ... Let’s talk about just imposing costs on Russia for its intransige­nce in the cyber domain.”

Most ‘ contentiou­s’ for last: Putin

Biden’s final stop may be his most challengin­g: a one- on- one with Putin.

The two leaders have long circled each other warily, and Biden will arrive in Switzerlan­d with a long list of grievances, from alleged Russian- backed hacking to Moscow’s crackdown on domestic political opponents and its support for those who do the same elsewhere, whether in Syria or in neighborin­g Belarus.

For his part, Putin will likely demand the U. S. stay out of what Putin sees as Russia’s legitimate activities in Ukraine.

Biden and Putin have not met in person since the former became president. But they have history. During an election fundraiser in New York in 2019, Biden spoke of meeting with Putin while he was vice president during the Obama administra­tion.

“I don’t think you have a soul,” Biden recalled saying to Putin. The Russian president’s response was, according to Biden, ‘ Well, we understand each other.’ ”

More recently, in March, Putin wished Biden “good health” after the U. S. leader assented to a descriptio­n of his Russian counterpar­t as a “killer” during an interview.

Jake Sullivan, Biden’s national security adviser, said in a White House briefing about Biden’s trip that the U. S.- Russia relationsh­ip is not one based on trust.

“It’s about a relationsh­ip of verification. It’s about a relationsh­ip of clarifying what our expectatio­ns are and laying out that if certain kinds of harmful activities continue to occur, there will be responses from the United States.”

Alexander Vershbow, a former U. S. ambassador to Russia and former NATO deputy secretary general, put it a differently: The Putin summit “is going to be a very contentiou­s one,” he said. “Biden made clear early on that there’s a new sheriff in town.”

 ?? PATRICK SEMANSKY/ AP ?? President Joe Biden speaks to U. S. troops at a station in England on Wednesday.
PATRICK SEMANSKY/ AP President Joe Biden speaks to U. S. troops at a station in England on Wednesday.
 ?? JOE GIDDENS/ AP ?? President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden arrive Wednesday on Air Force One at RAF Mildenhall, England, ahead of the G7 summit in Cornwall.
JOE GIDDENS/ AP President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden arrive Wednesday on Air Force One at RAF Mildenhall, England, ahead of the G7 summit in Cornwall.

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