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Parasite may be to blame for deaths of California sea otters

- Dinah Voyles Pulver Why warn others?

A toxic parasite “very different from anything” experts have seen before has killed four California sea otters and they’re concerned it could spread to other marine life and even humans.

Melissa Miller with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife routinely examines dead sea otters as part of a decadeslon­g state effort to help the recovery of the threatened species.

But when she examined one dead otter in February 2020, she immediatel­y knew she was seeing lesions she hadn’t seen before. Since then, three other dead otters have been found infected with a rare and deadly form of a common parasite found in cats, other animals and humans.

The parasites are carried in the feces of wild and domestic cats, said Devinn Marie Sinnott, a veterinary pathologis­t and doctoral student at the University of California, Davis.

On Wednesday, Miller and other researcher­s published a study in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science, hoping to alert others to the parasite. They hope other marine mammal responders and scientists will be careful when handling sea otters to avoid spreading the parasite.

Toxic parasites

Scientists have studied a common version of this parasite – Toxoplasma gondii – in sea otters for decades.

“In fact, it’s amazing how many otters are infected” with parasites, said Miller.

Toxoplasma can occur in any warmbloode­d species, including humans, and has been deadly among Hawaiian monk seals, said Sinnott, a co- author.

Typically, Toxoplasma kills sea otters slowly, in a “chronic, smoldering process,” Miller said. The strain documented in the California otters causes a more severe form of toxoplasmo­sis that appears to kill ” very fast.”

This version – Toxoplasma gondii COUG – was named for the two mountain lions in British Columbia where it was first documented in 1995 during an investigat­ion into a waterborne outbreak of toxoplasmo­sis in humans.

When Miller looked at it under a microscope, the number of parasites was “amazingly high,” she said. It hits body fat really hard and causes obvious lesions that can be seen with the naked eye.

It’s concerning for two reasons: the potential impacts on the population of threatened sea otters and the possible effect on the health of other animals susceptibl­e to Toxoplasma, Sinnott said.

The parasite has never been detected in any other aquatic species, including the more than 1,000 sea otters examined over the past 24 years, Miller said.

Only one other case has been reported, in a wild pig in California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains.

The sea otter deaths underscore the need to study the parasite and how it spreads among animals, Miller said. “Anything that we’re finding in marine mammals that’s different and new, we want to let people know about so they can take precaution­s.”

“Hopefully, between all the different groups studying in this area, we can kind of let each other know if we’re seeing it in other species, or try to figure out where it’s coming from,” Miller said. “We want to get the word out.” They hope to encourage others to:

● Watc● for the lesions.

● Take extra precaution­s during necropsies to avoid becoming infected.

● Freeze infected animals before disposing of them, to kill the parasites.

● Reach out to others to coordinate their investigat­ion.

All four of the sea otters died during periods of increased rainfall- driven runoff. That leaves researcher­s concerned about a potential link to contaminat­ed stormwater runoff after heavy rains.

Toxoplasma is hosted in wild and domestic cats and found in their feces, Sinnott said.

 ?? PROVIDED BY ELKHORN SLOUGH FOUNDATION ?? Otters in Elkhorn Slough off Monterey, Calif. Scientists have studied parasites sickening the otters for decades.
PROVIDED BY ELKHORN SLOUGH FOUNDATION Otters in Elkhorn Slough off Monterey, Calif. Scientists have studied parasites sickening the otters for decades.

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