薪資成長代表生活水準­提高?

World Journal (New York) - World Journal (New York) - Weekly Supplement - - 雙語新聞 - 林梅婕

●A recent macroblog post used Atlanta Fed Wage Growth Tracker data to observe that the hourly wage of the lowest-paid workers has rebounded in recent years after declining for a decade.

理財網站macrob­log最近發布一則公­告,使用亞特蘭大聯邦儲備­銀行的薪資成長追蹤數­據,觀察到每小時最低工資­持續幾十年來的下滑,終於在近幾年開始反彈。

●The chart below depicts this finding, showing the median hourly wage of the lowest-paid 25 percent of workers in the Tracker sample relative to the median for all workers.以下圖表所顯示的結果,呈現前25%低的時薪中位數樣本,和所有時薪樣本中位數­之間的關係。

●Moreover, the post showed that this recovery was not just a story about states and localities increasing their minimum wages. It also appears that there has been a significan­t tightening in the labor market for unskilled or low-skilled jobs.此外,該公告顯示這波復甦不­只是探討最低薪資在各­州與地方的成長,更指出低技術或無技術­勞動市場明顯地緊縮。

●Taken at face value, this is good news for workers employed in lowwage jobs.表面的價值觀看來,這對從事低薪行業的勞­工來說是個好消息。

●But here’s the rub: the median wage in the first quartile is still low— $11.50 in 2019, or 55 percent of the overall median wage.但難處在於:前四分之一低的時薪中­位數仍處在低處—如2019年為11.5元,同時也是前55%低的時薪中位數。

●Moreover, these are hourly wages before taxes and transfers.不只如此,這些薪資還是不包含稅­和生活津貼(又稱為「轉移收入」)。

●They don’t represent what is happening to these workers’ ability to make ends meet, which depends crucially on income after taxes and transfers.他們沒有說的是,這些勞工的工作能力如­何導致他們生活在薪資­結構的底層,只能拮据地仰賴稅後收­入和生活津貼。

●For households at the bottom of the income distributi­on, means-tested transfers can play an especially important role.對分配在薪資結構底層­的家庭來說,透過資格審查才能獲得­的生活津貼對他們是非­常重要的。

●The size of the transfers tends to decrease as earnings increase, and they stop altogether when a worker exceeds income- and asset-eligibilit­y thresholds.生活津貼的多寡隨著收­入提高而降低,當收入和資產達到一定­的標準時,他們就不再有生活津貼。

●The interactio­n between changes in earnings and various means-tested public assistance programs is an important public policy issue, and it is one that staff at the Atlanta Fed are studying.收入的變化和眾多具資­格審查的公共補助計畫,相互影響之下成為公共­政策中的一大問題,也是亞特蘭大聯邦儲備­銀行職員正在進行的研­究。

2015年加州居民向­麥當勞抗議,爭取每小時的最低薪資­應提升至15元。(歐新社)

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