Paris Agree­ment Rat­i­fied

Uzbekistan Today (English) - - ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY - Boriy ALIKHANOV, Deputy Speaker of the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber of the Oliy Ma­jlis, Sergei SAMOILOV, Mem­ber of the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber of the Oliy Ma­jlis

At a re­cent gen­eral ses­sion of the up­per house of par­lia­ment, the law on the rat­i­fi­ca­tion of the Paris Agree­ment to the UN Frame­work Con­ven­tion on Cli­mate Change has been ap­proved. What is the essence of this doc­u­ment? What does it give to Uzbek­istan? What com­mit­ments does Uzbek­istan as­sume? These ques­tions are ad­dressed in the fol­low­ing com­men­taries by our par­lia­men­tar­i­ans.

The Paris Agree­ment was inked in De­cem­ber 2015 at the 21st ses­sion of the Con­fer­ence of the Par­ties to the United Na­tions Frame­work Con­ven­tion on Cli­mate Change. It will be­gin to be im­ple­mented in 2020 and has re­placed the Ky­oto Pro­to­col, but, un­like the lat­ter, it es­tab­lished spe­cific re­quire­ments for both de­vel­oped and de­vel­op­ing na­tions to re­duce green­house gas emis­sions.

The doc­u­ment is aimed at more ac­tive im­ple­men­ta­tion of the UN Frame­work Con­ven­tion on Cli­mate Change, strength­en­ing the global re­sponse to the threat of cli­mate change in the con­text of sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment, in­clud­ing through the im­ple­men­ta­tion of fol­low­ing mea­sures.

First, they help keep growth in global av­er­age tem­per­a­tures be­neath 2°C above pre-in­dus­trial lev­els and limit tem­per­a­ture in­creases to 1.5°C, which will re­quire re­duc­tion in global emis­sions of green­house gases by 40-70% by 2050 and achiev­ing zero or neg­a­tive emis­sion rates of green­house gases by the year 2100.

Sec­ond, it can im­prove the abil­ity to adapt to the ad­verse ef­fects of cli­mate change and pro­mote re­silience to cli­mate change and de­vel­op­ment with low green­house gas emis­sions, while avoid­ing threats to food pro­duc­tion.

Third, it can boost fi­nan­cial flows that en­sure de­vel­op­ment char­ac­ter­ized by low emis­sions and re­sis­tance to cli­mate change.

The main obli­ga­tion of coun­tries is to present the es­ti­mated con­tri­bu­tions, de­ter­mined at the na­tional level, to re­duc­ing green­house gas emis­sions, which they have the op­por­tu­nity to re­view ev­ery 5 years start­ing from 2023 and, if they wish, in­crease them. Other com­mit­ments of this agree­ment re­lated to Uzbek­istan in­clude the elab­o­ra­tion of pro­pos­als and im­ple­men­ta­tion of prac­ti­cal mea­sures based on their own na­tional con­di­tions and with the sup­port of ad­vanced na­tions, aimed at for­mu­lat­ing a longterm de­vel­op­ment strat­egy with low green­house gas emis­sions, strength­en­ing adap­tive ca­pac­i­ties and cut­ting vul­ner­a­bil­ity to cli­mate change, en­sur­ing the re­al­iza­tion of na­tional adap­ta­tion plans.

At the same time, the par­tic­i­pa­tion of any state is pro­vided on the ba­sis of jus­tice and the prin­ci­ple of com­mon but dif­fer­en­ti­ated re­spon­si­bil­ity and cor­re­spond­ing op­por­tu­ni­ties, tak­ing into ac­count na­tional con­di­tions. The Paris Agree­ment es­tab­lishes a ma­jor com­mit­ment for coun­tries to sub­mit al­leged con­tri­bu­tions to re­duc­ing green­house gas emis­sions that they in­tend to achieve by 2030.

The agree­ment was signed by Uzbek­istan on April 19, 2017, and an In­ter-Agency Work­ing Group was set up to con­duct a com­pre­hen­sive weighted as­sess­ment of the dy­nam­ics and pro­jec­tions of green­house gas emis­sions, tak­ing into ac­count eco­nomic growth, the po­ten­tial for their re­duc­tion based on the planned ac­tiv­i­ties re­flected in the sec­tor-based in­ten­tions on the ba­sis of which it came up with pro­pos­als to the Frame­work Con­ven­tion Sec­re­tar­iat to strengthen mea­sures and ac­tions to com­bat cli­mate change. In par­tic­u­lar, on the ex­pected re­duc­tion in spe­cific green­house gas emis­sions per unit of GDP by 10% by 2030 from the level of 2010, adopted as the base­line, with phys­i­cal growth of green­house gases to 60-65 per­cent.

The pur­pose­ful pol­icy of the head of our state to con­sis­tently and grad­u­ally mod­ern­ize in­dus­try, en­ergy ef­fi­ciency and en­ergy sav­ing in key sec­tors of the econ­omy has al­ready al­lowed us to sta­bi­lize the level of green­house gas emis­sions.

As one of the tar­gets for the pe­riod up to 2030, the re­duc­tion of the en­ergy in­ten­sity of GDP is ap­prox­i­mately dou­bled as a re­sult of the widespread in­tro­duc­tion of mod­ern en­ergy-sav­ing tech­nolo­gies in the coun­try. In this di­rec­tion, one of the guid­ing doc­u­ments was the de­cree of the Pres­i­dent signed May 26, 2017, on the Pro­gram of Mea­sures for the Fur­ther De­vel­op­ment of Re­new­able En­ergy, Im­prov­ing En­ergy Ef­fi­ciency in the Econ­omy and So­cial Sphere for 2017-2021. It is aimed at the fur­ther de­vel­op­ment of the coun­try’s hy­dropower po­ten­tial, with the ex­pan­sion of the eco­log­i­cally clean hy­dropower ca­pac­ity 1.7 times by 2025, as well as the en­hance­ment of the use of re­new­able en­ergy sources, re­duc­tion of the en­ergy in­ten­sity of pro­duc­tion, and tar­geted in­tro­duc­tion of en­er­gysav­ing tech­nolo­gies. The State Pro­gram for the De­vel­op­ment of the Aral Re­gion for 2017-2021 was adopted and is be­ing im­ple­mented, which will serve to perk up the eco­log­i­cal and so­cio-eco­nomic sit­u­a­tion, the liv­ing con­di­tions of the lo­cal pop­u­la­tion, and mit­i­gate the con­se­quences of the en­vi­ron­men­tal dis­as­ter of the Aral. A num­ber of sig­nif­i­cant ini­tia­tives put for­ward by the head of our state at the In­ter­na­tional Fund for Sav­ing the Aral Sea (IFAS) sum­mit on Au­gust 24, 2018, aimed at unit­ing the com­mon ef­forts of the Cen­tral Asian re­gion in or­der to create con­di­tions for at­tract­ing for­eign in­vest­ment into the elab­o­ra­tion and in­tro­duc­tion of en­vi­ron­men­tally clean, en­ergy and wa­ter sav­ing tech­nolo­gies, to the re­al­iza­tion of mea­sures to weather the im­pact of the eco­log­i­cal catas­tro­phe of the Aral Sea, com­pre­hen­sive in­tro­duc­tion of prin­ci­ples of green econ­omy, in­cluded pro­pos­als on the an­nounce­ment of the Aral re­gion as a zone of eco­log­i­cal in­no­va­tions and tech­nolo­gies, the creation of multi-part­ner trust fund for hu­man se­cu­rity for this area, open­ing of rep­re­sen­ta­tive of­fices of the World Bank, the Asian De­vel­op­ment Bank and the Global En­vi­ron­ment Fund un­der the In­ter­na­tional Fund for Sav­ing the Aral Sea.

In ad­di­tion, in the con­text of in­dus­tries, sec­tors of econ­omy and ter­ri­to­ries, a sin­gle ac­tion plan is be­ing de­vel­oped to pre­vent cli­mate change and adapt to ad­verse im­pacts. In ad­di­tion, the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the joint project of the United Na­tions De­vel­op­ment Pro­gram and the Min­istry of Econ­omy of Uzbek­istan “Strat­egy of low-car­bon de­vel­op­ment of the Repub­lic of Uzbek­istan” to in­te­grate cli­mate change is­sues into the sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment of the na­tional econ­omy, as a kind of po­lit­i­cal tool, al­lows not only to iden­tify sources of green­house gas emis­sions in the coun­try, but also de­ter­mine the most ef­fec­tive ways to re­duce them. Along with this, the prepa­ra­tion of the Na­tional Adap­ta­tion Plan, which will be funded by the Green Cli­mate Fund, is en­vis­aged.

Uzbek­istan’s par­tic­i­pa­tion in the Paris Agree­ment pro­vides the coun­try with a num­ber of ben­e­fits. In par­tic­u­lar, the pos­si­bil­ity of at­tract­ing cli­mate fi­nance re­sources, mainly grants, of ob­tain­ing loans from in­ter­na­tional fi­nan­cial in­sti­tu­tions and donor na­tions, ad­di­tional tech­ni­cal re­sources for the im­ple­men­ta­tion of cur­rent and fu­ture pro­grams on en­ergy sav­ing, in the eco­nomic and so­cial sphere, agri­cul­ture and oth­ers. Also, co­op­er­a­tion in the field of adap­ta­tion to cli­mate change pro­vides the coun­try with the op­por­tu­nity to im­ple­ment adap­ta­tion mea­sures to in­crease re­silience and re­duce vul­ner­a­bil­ity to cli­mate change within the frame­work of na­tional in­ter­ests. In ad­di­tion, it pro­vides for the im­ple­men­ta­tion of mea­sures to cope with the ad­verse ef­fects of cli­mate change, which will be pro­vided by donors, if ev­i­dence of dam­age is pro­vided for this rea­son.

En­ergy sav­ing mea­sures will hoard a sig­nif­i­cant amount of pri­mary en­ergy sources, mainly nat­u­ral gas. In­vest­ments in en­ergy ef­fi­ciency and re­new­able en­ergy are rel­e­vant both from an eco­nomic – re­duc­ing en­ergy costs, – and cli­matic point of view in re­duc­ing green­house gas emis­sions. At the ini­tia­tive of deputies of the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber from the Ecol­ogy Move­ment, a draft law on re­new­able en­ergy sources has been worked out, which is cur­rently dis­cussed in the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber of the Oliy Ma­jlis in the first read­ing and prepa­ra­tions are un­der­way for the sec­ond read­ing.

Uzbek­istan also gets ac­cess to new tech­nolo­gies for mit­i­ga­tion and adap­ta­tion to cli­mate change, as well as the op­por­tu­nity to at­tract re­sources of the Green Cli­mate Fund for the im­ple­men­ta­tion of na­tional pro­grams on en­ergy ef­fi­ciency and en­ergy sav­ing, de­vel­op­ment of re­new­able en­ergy sources, im­prove­ment of land and wa­ter re­sources man­age­ment sys­tems, com­bat­ing neg­a­tive con­se­quences of the Aral cri­sis, de­ser­ti­fi­ca­tion, drought.

To achieve the ob­jec­tives of long-term sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment, it is nec­es­sary to boost in­sti­tu­tional ca­pac­ity build­ing, de­vise a long-term low-car­bon de­vel­op­ment strat­egy that de­fines en­ergy ef­fi­ciency tar­gets, and elab­o­rate a pro­gram of mea­sures for tran­si­tion to a low­car­bon de­vel­op­ment path for key sec­tors of the econ­omy (elec­tric power, ther­mal en­ergy, hous­ing and util­ity ser­vices) which make a ma­jor con­tri­bu­tion to green­house gas emis­sions in Uzbek­istan and im­prove­ment of the leg­isla­tive base in the field of re­new­able en­ergy ef­fi­ciency and car­bon fi­nanc­ing mech­a­nisms.

It is pro­posed to con­tem­plate a spe­cial na­tional pro­gram to adapt to the ad­verse ef­fects of cli­mate change in Uzbek­istan. The doc­u­ment would ad­dress the prob­lems of the neg­a­tive im­pact of cli­mate change in the field of wa­ter re­sources, on pub­lic health, would help in­crease the sus­tain­abil­ity of the health­care sec­tor, as well as the im­ple­men­ta­tion of mea­sures to in­tro­duce re­source-sav­ing and waste-free tech­nolo­gies and in­no­va­tive sus­tain­able ap­proaches for the ef­fec­tive man­age­ment of land and wa­ter re­sources in or­der to pre­vent degra­da­tion and de­ser­ti­fi­ca­tion of land, new ser­vices and en­trepreneur­ship with a wide range of eco­nomic in­stru­ments.

Rat­i­fi­ca­tion of the Paris Agree­ment tes­ti­fies to the com­mit­ment of the Repub­lic of Uzbek­istan to uni­ver­sal val­ues, ideas of en­vi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion re­flected in the doc­u­ment, and will con­trib­ute to the en­hance­ment of in­ter­na­tional co­op­er­a­tion with the Par­ties to the Frame­work Con­ven­tion on Cli­mate Change.

Our ref­er­ence: Green­house gases are gases with high trans­parency in the vis­i­ble range and with high ab­sorp­tion in the far in­frared range. The pres­ence of such gases in the at­mos­pheres of the plan­ets leads to a green­house ef­fect, that is, an in­crease in the tem­per­a­ture of the lower lay­ers of the planet’s at­mos­phere.

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