Dig­i­tal Tech­nol­ogy Changes the Way Knowl­edge Is Cre­ated

Uzbekistan Today (English) - - WORLD -

The MES project en­vis­ages the fol­low­ing: in the class­room, school­child­ren should use in­di­vid­ual tablets or smart­phones, con­tact­ing an in­ter­ac­tive white­board in the class­room, com­plete tests, “at­tend” vir­tual tours, use vir­tual lab­o­ra­to­ries. Each les­son must be pre­pared by the teacher in elec­tronic form, au­to­mated ver­i­fi­ca­tion of writ­ten work is also in­tro­duced, dur­ing which it is nec­es­sary to carry out a sec­tion of knowl­edge with au­to­matic grad­ing in an elec­tronic jour­nal.

A router is a spe­cial­ized com­puter that for­wards pack­ets among dif­fer­ent net­work seg­ments based on rules and rout­ing ta­bles. The router can con­nect het­ero­ge­neous net­works.

The project “Con­tin­gent” is a sys­tem of ac­count­ing for ba­sic ed­u­ca­tional sup­ple­men­tary gen­eral ed­u­ca­tion pro­grams.

We in­creas­ingly come across to­day with the ex­pres­sion “dig­i­tal­iza­tion of ed­u­ca­tion”. It is clear that dig­i­tal tech­nolo­gies have trans­formed our ev­ery­day life and we our­selves did not un­der­stand how the en­vi­ron­ment around us has be­come in large parts dig­i­tal. But how does this re­late to ed­u­ca­tion? We have talked about this with Nig­ina Magdiyeva, a se­nior re­search fel­low at the In­sti­tute of Strate­gic and Re­gional Stud­ies.

“In many Eu­ro­pean coun­tries a blended learn­ing for­mat is be­ing ac­tively in­tro­duced in re­cent years, con­sti­tut­ing a com­bi­na­tion of aca­demic ed­u­ca­tion and dig­i­tal tech­nolo­gies. But even in Rus­sia, a year ago, the start of the pri­or­ity project “Mod­ern Dig­i­tal Ed­u­ca­tional En­vi­ron­ment in the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion” was launched, seek­ing to pro­vide high-qual­ity and af­ford­able on­line ed­u­ca­tion with the help of mod­ern tech­nolo­gies. What is the rea­son be­hind all this? Af­ter all, the in­ter­net will never re­place the teacher.”

“Yes, of course, the global net will hardly sub­sti­tute the teacher, but in the mod­ern world, ed­u­ca­tion is mov­ing to the vir­tual space and con­quer­ing it at an ac­cel­er­ated pace. Ac­cord­ing to ex­perts, Rus­sia is al­ready ap­proach­ing the fi­nal stage in the trans­for­ma­tion of the tra­di­tional ed­u­ca­tion sys­tem: the govern­ment has em­barked on the in­tro­duc­tion of dig­i­tal teach­ing meth­ods.

As an­a­lysts sug­gest, the de­sire of Rus­sia to ac­cel­er­ate the for­ma­tion of a “dig­i­tal so­ci­ety” owes to the fol­low­ing ob­jec­tive fac­tors: first, due to the mount­ing com­pe­ti­tion and the speedy trans­for­ma­tion of tech­nol­ogy, the global busi­ness needs em­ploy­ees trained un­der a nar­row cir­cle of tasks with max­i­mum flex­i­bil­ity and able to work in dif­fer­ent cul­tures and in dif­fer­ent tech­no­log­i­cal en­vi­ron­ment; se­condly, dig­i­tal tech­nolo­gies change the way in which knowl­edge is cre­ated and trans­mit­ted, skills are formed, and pro­cesses for eval­u­at­ing and man­ag­ing ed­u­ca­tional in­sti­tu­tions are car­ried out. Th­ese tech­nolo­gies are transna­tional, ac­ces­si­ble to all sec­tors of so­ci­ety; third, a sig­nif­i­cant part of new so­lu­tions for ed­u­ca­tion is im­ple­mented in the form of tech­no­log­i­cal star­tups es­ti­mated by in­vestors as one of the most promis­ing ar­eas. Out­side the tra­di­tional ed­u­ca­tion sys­tem, a new transna­tional mar­ket emerges, which is be­gin­ning to in­tro­duce new stan­dards.

“What are the on­line learn­ing op­por­tu­ni­ties in Rus­sia now and how will they change in the fu­ture”

“The Mos­cow Elec­tronic School (MES) project has be­come the em­bod­i­ment of the process of dig­i­tal­iza­tion of ed­u­ca­tion. In 2016, MES was in­tro­duced as a pi­lot project in 6 in­sti­tu­tions in Mos­cow, in 2017 it reached 608 schools, by the end of 2018, the project should cover all ed­u­ca­tional in­sti­tu­tions in the Rus­sian cap­i­tal.

MES is in­tro­duced in the form of sep­a­rate el­e­ments (elec­tronic di­aries, jour­nals, push no­ti­fi­ca­tions to par­ents, etc.) or in full, which in­cludes: first, the hard­ware, an in­ter­ac­tive black­board, ac­cess to Wi-Fi, lap­top, teacher’s tablet, server at school, struc­tured ca­ble net­works; sec­ond, the soft­ware part – pro­vid­ing net­work ac­cess for work­ing with con­tent, down­load­ing train­ing ma­te­ri­als, demon­strat­ing and mod­er­at­ing them in class, as well as an elec­tronic li­brary with ma­te­ri­als.

For this pur­pose, in the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion, tech­ni­cal re-equip­ment of metropoli­tan schools and the train­ing of qual­i­fied spe­cial­ists be­gan. In par­tic­u­lar, the classes are equipped with in­ter­ac­tive white­boards (the cost of one board is $ 7.7 thou­sand), Wi-Fi routers, etc.; teach­ers are trained by the new sys­tem with the help of in­struc­tors; teach­ers and school prin­ci­pals are en­cour­aged to par­tic­i­pate in the project by pro­vid­ing grants from the govern­ment of Mos­cow to de­vel­op­ers of elec­tronic ma­te­ri­als for the MES.”

“What are the main mech­a­nisms pro­mot­ing e-ed­u­ca­tion in Rus­sia?”

“Among the main mech­a­nisms I can sin­gle out the “EdCrunch” con­fer­ence, which, with the sup­port of the Min­istry of Ed­u­ca­tion of the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion, is called upon to dis­trib­ute new ed­u­ca­tional tech­nolo­gies, pri­mar­ily mass open on­line cour­ses (MOOC). I will clar­ify that EdCrunch is one of the largest con­fer­ences in Europe in the field of new ed­u­ca­tional tech­nolo­gies. Th­ese events bring to­gether lead­ing world ex­perts in the field of mod­ern on­line ed­u­ca­tion and the cre­ators of world and na­tional ed­u­ca­tional plat­forms.

An ef­fec­tive fac­tor was the launch of the Higher School of Eco­nom­ics of the Rus­sian Na­tional Open Ed­u­ca­tion Plat­form (NOEP). It im­ple­ments it to­gether with seven lead­ing uni­ver­si­ties of the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion (Mos­cow In­sti­tute of Physics and Tech­nol­ogy, Ural Fed­eral Univer­sity, the M.Lomonosov Mos­cow State Univer­sity, Mos­cow In­sti­tute of Steel and Al­loys, St. Peters­burg Na­tional Re­search Univer­sity of In­for­ma­tion Tech­nolo­gies, Me­chan­ics and Op­tics, St. Peters­burg State Univer­sity, St. Peters­burg State Univer­sity and St. Peters­burg Polytech­nic Univer­sity).

In 2016, more than 90 cour­ses were placed on the plat­form, and the num­ber of stu­dents ex­ceeded 120 thou­sand peo­ple, the cour­ses reached 231 in 2017 and 400 thou­sand peo­ple, re­spec­tively.

An­other mech­a­nism is the ap­proval by the govern­ment of the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion of the “roadmap” for the cre­ation of a com­pre­hen­sive project of the State In­for­ma­tion Sys­tem “Con­tin­gent”. A sin­gle fed­eral in­ter­a­gency sys­tem should com­bine in­for­ma­tion about the child, which is stored in var­i­ous de­part­ments. It is sup­posed to par­tially con­nect in­for­ma­tion sys­tems, hav­ing re­ceived in­for­ma­tion from: the Civil Registry Of­fice (in­for­ma­tion about the birth of a child, the FMS (in­for­ma­tion about the place of regis­tra­tion and cit­i­zen­ship), the Pen­sion Fund (SNILS), the stu­dent’s elec­tronic di­ary (in­for­ma­tion about the stu­dent’s progress), the univer­sity’s data­base (in­for­ma­tion about ex­ams and cour­ses at­tended).

“Could you tell us more about the project “Mod­ern Dig­i­tal Ed­u­ca­tional En­vi­ron­ment in the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion”?”

“The project “Mod­ern Dig­i­tal Ed­u­ca­tional En­vi­ron­ment in the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion” was ap­proved by the Rus­sian govern­ment as part of the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the state pro­gram “De­vel­op­ment of Ed­u­ca­tion for 2013-2020”. It is be­ing im­ple­mented as part of the Strat­egy for the De­vel­op­ment of the In­for­ma­tion So­ci­ety in the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion for 2017-2030 and the Dig­i­tal Econ­omy of the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion Pro­gram. By the way, it was elab­o­rated on the ba­sis of on­line train­ing and the con­tin­gent project. Its re­al­iza­tion is de­signed for the pe­riod from 2016 to 2025. In ad­di­tion, the point is to cre­ate con­di­tions for life­long ed­u­ca­tion through the de­vel­op­ment of dig­i­tal ed­u­ca­tional space, which will bring the num­ber of stu­dents us­ing on­line cour­ses to 2020 to 6 mil­lion peo­ple, and by 2025 up to 11 mil­lion.

The re­sult should be the cre­ation of an in­for­ma­tion re­source for all cat­e­gories of ci­ti­zens, which will pro­vide ac­cess to on­line cour­ses for all lev­els of ed­u­ca­tion.

To­day’s ad­vances in tech­nol­ogy of adap­tive learn­ing and ar­ti­fi­cial in­tel­li­gence truly trans­form the ed­u­ca­tional ex­pe­ri­ence of stu­dents on a scale that we could never imag­ine. In the process of learn­ing or work­ing in the dig­i­tal en­vi­ron­ment, users cre­ate large streams of ed­u­ca­tional data that open up op­por­tu­ni­ties for new ped­a­gogy. Big data-based ped­a­gogy: col­lect­ing in­for­ma­tion on pro­duc­tive ed­u­ca­tional, ca­reer and de­vel­op­men­tal tra­jec­to­ries, on the de­mand for dif­fer­ent types of ed­u­ca­tional con­tent, on pat­terns of be­hav­ior, anal­y­sis of per­sonal data and rec­om­men­da­tions for chang­ing the tra­jec­tory.”

“Do you think that the in­tro­duc­tion of dig­i­tal tech­nolo­gies by Rus­sia into the ed­u­ca­tional sys­tem can be of prac­ti­cal in­ter­est for Uzbek­istan, es­pe­cially con­sid­er­ing the in­creas­ing in­ter­ac­tion among the higher ed­u­ca­tional in­sti­tu­tions of our two coun­tries?”

“Def­i­nitely. The po­ten­tial of tech­nol­ogy in pro­vid­ing per­son­al­ized ac­cess to qual­ity ed­u­ca­tion calls into ques­tion the fu­ture of schools, uni­ver­si­ties and uni­ver­si­ties in any coun­try. And in any case, we should ask such ques­tions: how to pre­serve the mo­ti­va­tion of chil­dren and cre­ate a de­vel­op­ing ed­u­ca­tional en­vi­ron­ment? How will the ed­u­ca­tion sys­tem change in gen­eral and how will learn­ing paths be formed in the fu­ture?”

“And what should Uzbek­istan be­gin with in or­der to be ready to ad­dress th­ese is­sues?”

“Well, first, we can con­sider the pos­si­bil­ity of cre­at­ing an ex­pert work­ing group within the Min­istry of Pub­lic Ed­u­ca­tion, the Min­istry of Higher and Se­condary Spe­cial Ed­u­ca­tion, the Min­istry of Com­mu­ni­ca­tions and the Min­istry of Fi­nance to de­velop a na­tional strat­egy for Uzbek­istan to in­tro­duce dig­i­tal ed­u­ca­tion in the repub­lic.

Se­condly, to de­velop and im­ple­ment a pi­lot project of “dig­i­tal ed­u­ca­tion” at the Tashkent State Tech­ni­cal Univer­sity (TSTU), in­volv­ing as part­ners the branches of Lomonosov Mos­cow State Univer­sity and the Branch of the Mos­cow In­sti­tute of Steel and Al­loys in Uzbek­istan.

Third, to­gether with Min­istry of In­for­ma­tion Tech­nolo­gies and Com­mu­ni­ca­tions the TSTU may con­sider the pos­si­bil­ity of de­vel­op­ing mas­sive open on­line cour­ses us­ing dis­tance-learn­ing for­mats.

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