Marimiro anokudza goho

Kwayedza - - Nhau Dzevarimi - Wendy Madzura Wendy Madzura mudhumeni kuSeed Co uye anobatika pa: 0713 270 080 kana 0773 270 080

KURIMA zvekukwidza goho pandima (yield per unit area) kwakakosha kuti mhuri pamwe chete nenyika yeZimbabwe zvive nemaguta. Kurima kwakadai kunopa budiriro kuvarimi zvose nenyika.

Kurima zvekukwidza goho kwakanikira kuti varimi vanoshandisa mari shoma pakurima, zvoreva kuti kana vachinge vabvisa mari yavanenge varimisa, vanosara vaine imwe yakawanda muhomwe yokuitisa mamwe mabasa papurazi. Kana murimi akavavarira kukwidza goho rake zvinoreva kuti mari inoshanda kurima ndima ye1 hekita inoderera.

Chinyorwa chino chine mazano gumi nerimwe anobatsira pakurima zvine pundutso. Mazano aya anobatanidzira zvose zvinokurudzirwa pakurima mbeu zvakanaka (good agronomic practices: GAP). Tinovimba kuti mazano aya achavandudza marimiro evakawanda. Zvinogoneka chete!

1. Tanga nekuongorora nekugadzirisa ivhu.

Kuvava kana kutapira kwevhu, iya inonzi Ph, kwakakosha zvikuru pakupa ruzivo rwekuti ivhu rakanaka here pakukudza mbeu uye pakupa mbeu kudya kwakafanira. Munda unenge wakaongororwa ukagadziriswa unoita kuti mafetireza ashande zvakanaka. Izvi zvinoita kuti mbeu dzikure zvakanaka.

Kushandisa lime mumunda kunobatsira kuti ivhu risavave (acidic). Chibage chinoda ivhu riri pa5.5 kusvika 6.5 pachikero chinotaridza kuvava kana kutapira kwevhu chinonzi Calcium chloride scale.

Kuisa lime muvhu kunobatsira kuti ivhu risave nezvinokanganisa kukura kwembeu, zvinosanganisira aluminium nemanganese nekuti zvinovhiringa mashandiro emafetireza. Mafetireza akasashanda zvakanaka zvinokonzera kuti chibage chitadze kupa murimi goho repamusoro.

Kuisa lime muvhu kunovandudza chimiro chevhu zvoita kuti mbeu ibude zvakanaka, pova nemadzinde akawanda pandima (crop stand). Midzi inowedzera kukura zvichiita kuti mbeu ikwanise kutora mafetireza muvhu zviri nyore.

Zvakakosha kuongroresa ivhu kuti zvionekwe kuti pamunda panoda lime yakawanda zvakadii. Rangarirai kuti chibage chinoda Ph iri pakati pe5.5 – 6.5.

2. Tanga pamunda wakaitwa gadziriro yakakwana.

Kurima munda zvakakwana kwakakosha kana chibage chichirimwa zvekupa goho repamusoro uye zvine pundutso. Pakurima mbesadzosedzinomeranokubuda muvhu zvakanaka kana munda uchinge warimwa nemazvo. Kune nzira mbiri dzekurima:

a) Kurima nemichina (conventional tillage)

i) Iyi nzira inovavarira kuputsa mavhinga mumunda kuti ivhu risare rakatsetseka. Izvi zvinoita kuti mbeu nevhu zvive nesungawirirano inokonzeresa kuti mbesa imere zvakanaka.

ii) Nzira iyi inoshanda kuuraya sora zvoita nyore pakudyara nekumera kwembesa, munda wotange wakachena.

Zvinokurudzirwa kuti gejo ridzikiswe zvakasiyana-siyana pakurima sezvo zvichibatsira kuti munda usaite chikoko chevhu rakaomarara icho chinotadzisa midzi yembesa kukura zvakanaka (plough pan). Chikofa ichi chinotadzisa zvakare mvura kudzika muvhu zvoita kuti goho ridzike. Tinokurudzira kuti murimi ashandise Chisel plough kana ripper kuputsa chikoko kana chikofa ichi mushure memakore matatu oga oga.

b) Imwe nzira kurima zvekusasimudza ivhu zvakanyanya (conservation tillage)

Donzo riripo panzira iyi nderekuti varimi vachengetedze hunyoro muvhu pamwe chete nekusiya mashizha kana mishanga mumunda mushure mekunge vakohwa (30% of previous crop residue). Mashanga nemashizha anobatsira kuti ivhu risakukurwe nemvura panguva yekunaya.

Zvisinei, nzira iyi inonyanya kushanda pamunda une ivhu rakati simbei (dzvuku), risina kunyanya kuita jecha kana shapa (clay content 25%), kunyanya muchikamu chevhu chinokura midzi (30cm zone). Ivhu rinofanira kunge riine chimiro chakanaka uye risingavavi zvinokanganisa chirimwa.

3. Tanga nekusarudza mbeu yakanaka.

Sarudzo yembeu yakakosha zvikuru pakurima zvekukwidza goho pandima. Sarudzo yembeu inoenderana nemwaka nekunenge kuchirimirwa zvakafanana nesarudzo yemudikani, kana sarudzo iyi ikaitwa zvakanaka zvinounza mufaro wakanyanya asi kana ikatadzwa, panove nokudemba nokuchema.

Chokwadi chiripo ndechekuti sarudzo yembeu yechibage ndiro donzo rokurima zvine pundutso. Zvakakosha kusarudza mbeu inopa goho repamusoro asi iine chipo chekuchengetedza goho kubva kumamiriro ekunze. Mbeu dzinoti Tsuro, Tsoko, Mbizi, Shumba neNzou dzakanaka zvikuru pakupa goho - chakakosha kusarudza inoenderana nemwaka uye nekwamunorimira muri.

Sarudzo yembeu ndiko kutanga kwekurima zvemhando yebhizimusi, vavariro iri yekuti murimi akwidze goho achiwana pundutso.

4. Vavarira kuwana madzinde anokurudzirwa pandima aine mbesa yakamira zvakafanana.

Chimwe chezvinhu zvakakosha kukwanisa kuve nemadzinde anokurudzirwa pambeu yamadyara. Mbeu inotanga zvakanaka inopawo goho repamusoro. Varimi vanokurudzirwa kuvavarira kuwana madzinde anoenderana nemhando yembeu yavasarudza, huwandu hwemvura uye kudya kunenge kuri muvhu ravo. Pakudyara, cherechedzai kuti mbeu iri kudzika zvakafanira here maringe nehunyoro hunenge huri muvhu.

Cherechedzai nekuona kuti michina ichashanda pakudyara yagadzirwa zvakakwana (calibration).

Pakushandisa michina, fambai zvinotendera kuti mbeu nefetireza zvinoiswa muvhu nemazvo. Kusiyana kwekumera kwembeu mumunda kunounza dambudziko rokuti mbeu inenge yapedzisira kumera haikurirani nedzimwe. Izvi zvinodzikisa goho.

Kune vanorimira kunzvimbo dzakakwirira uye vaine madiridziro, tinokurudzira madzinde ari pakati pe50 000 kusvika 60 000 kunyanya kubva kumbeu dziri mumhuri yeMbizi, Shumba neNzou. Kunzvimbo dzinonaya mvura shoma, tinokurudzira madzinde ari pakati pe37 000 kusvika 44 000 pahekita.

5. Huwandu hwekudya kwephosphorous:

Kukura kunoita mbeu mumunda kunoenderana nekuwanda kwechikafu chinokudza midzi (phosphorous). Kana kudya uku kuri kushoma, mbeu haikuri zvakanaka izvo zvinoderedza goho. Kumbeu yechibage kudya kunokudza midzi uku (phosphorous) kunodiwa nehuwandu huri pakati pe30 kusvika 50 mg/ kg. Kushanda kwephosphorous kunodyidzana nemamiriro evhu maringe nekuvava kana kutapira kwaro (pH). Huwandu hwephosphorous muvhu hunoonekwa mushure mekuriongororesa. Chokutanga murimi anofanira kuisa lime obva azoisa fetireza inowedzera kudya kwephosphorous yeSingle Super Phosphate SSP. Fetireza iyi inoda kurimirwa pasi kuti isangane nevhu mbeu isati yadyarwa.

6. Nguva yekudyara:

Nguva yekudyara yakakosha pakurima chibage. Chibage chinodyarwa panguva yekunaya kwemvura. Zvakakosha kudyara nekukasira kuti murimi awane goho repamusoro nekuti goho rinodzika nokunonoka kudyara. Izvi zvinonyanya kukonzereswa nekuti kudziya kunodiwa kuti mbeu ipe goho repamusoro (heat units) kunonyanya kuwanikwa kubva panotanga mwaka kuchienda kuchidzikira nokufamba kwemwaka.

Kupisa kwekunze kunonyanya kubva mumwedzi waGumiguru kusvika Zvita. Izvi zvakakosha pakukura kwechibage. Zvakanakawo kudyara nemvura yokutanga kuti mbeu imere. Mvura iyi inenge iine huwandu hwe35mm asi inofanira kunge yanaya mukati memazuva matatu akatevekedzana.

Kunonoka kudyara kunodzikisa goho. Mbeu inodyarwa kubva pakati pemwedzi waMbudzi inokwanisa kuderedza goho zviri pakati pe100 kusvika 120 kg pahekita pavhiki rega rega rekunonoka kudyara. Mbeu inodyarwa mvura zhinji isati yatanga inoita midzi yakawanda, yakasimba zvobva zvaita kuti chirimwa chikure zvakanaka. Kukurumidza kudyara kunoita kuti mwaka urebe nokudaro kana paine madiridziro chibage chinokwanisa kudyarwa kubva muvhiki rekutanga raGumiguru.

7. Kuuraya sora nekudzivirira twumbuyu:

Zvakakosha kutanga nemunda usina sora kunyanya kwemavhiki gumi kusvika pagumi maviri (10 – 12 weeks). Tinodaro nokuti apa ndipo panoshandiswa kudya kana kuti mafetireza mazhinji nembesa (60%). Panguva iyi zvakakosha kuti mbeu isave nesora nokuti rinokwikwidzana nembeu pakutora mafetireza nehunyoro muvhu. Kurudziroyedundeyekuti munda unofanira kugara usina sora pakukura kwembesa, izvi zvinoita kuti goho riwedzere.

Kana varimi vakakundikana kudzivirira sora, vanorasikirwa negoho zvinosvika pa50%. Muenzaniso ndewe sora resoya beans rinokwanisa kudzikisa goho kubva pa57% kusvika pa87%.

Gonye remhando yefall army worm rakonzera dambudziko rakanyanya pakurima chibage, zvinove zvinodzorera shure donzvo kana kuti dingindira ratinaro rekukwidza goho rechibage nekuunza maguta kunyika. Varimi vanofanira kufamba mumunda pamazuva maviri kana matatu ega ega (scouting) kuti vaone kuti pane chinoda kugadziriswa here mumunda. Zvakakosha kuti varimi vashandise mishonga inokurudzirwananamazvikokoka vemishonga.

Kuti mbeu ibude zvakanaka, munda unofanirwa kurimwa zvemandorokwati.

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