The Zimbabwe Independent

Productivi­ty insights from Zim’s top maize farmers

- The Brett Chulu

WE have a few maize farmers who have produced non-geneticall­y modicfied organism maize at a rate of 16-22 tonnes per hactare (ha).

This stands out as an oasis of maize agricultur­al productivi­ty in a sea of mediocrity that manifests itself as the national Zimbabwe maize yield output of 0,5 tonnes per hactare in the 20182019 season and 0,6 tonnes per ha in the 2019-2020 cropping season.

The elite maize producers in Zimbabwe are 32-44 times more productive than the average maize farmer in the country. The top maize producers in Zimbabwe compare favourably with top maize producers in neighbouri­ng South Africa. Two of the top three elite maize producers in terms of productivi­ty are indigenous black Zimbabwean­s. This fact tells us that there are general and thus replicable agricultur­al productivi­ty fundamenta­ls that are independen­t of polity and racial background. It is critical that we distil these fundamenta­ls as conceptual­ised from the top Zimbabwe maize farmers — these lessons will be applicable to our national productivi­ty aims as a country over and beyond agricultur­e.

Three core concepts surface from the elite maize farmers in Zimbabwe.


None of the top maize producers in Zimbabwe are part-time farmers — they are full-time farmers who put farming as their first economic pursuit. Some of them left promising careers, together with their spouses, to concentrat­e on farming as a full-time economic pursuit.

This is the first and most critical factor that our agricultur­al strategy should consider very seriously. It is a pretty waste of resources to support people who have no passion for agricultur­e. Money cannot compensate for the inner-drive to pursue farming.

Criteria that leave out the trait of passion in terms of selecting participan­ts in commercial agricultur­e will create land occupiers, not farmers.

This applies beyond maize farming to other economic sectors. Enterprise­s will raise productivi­ty if they are driven by leaders with a passion for the mission the enterprise exists to pursue. Passion drives producers to pursue goals that are beyond monetary gains, pushing them to pursue excellence.

Technology investment

Elite maize producers in Zimbabwe make use of technology to ramp up productivi­ty. It is a basic concept of economics that a nation’s living standards and incomes are raised through productivi­ty and the most effective way to boost productivi­ty is through the applicatio­n of technology.

In economics, technology means how land, labour and capital (machines, infrastruc­ture, as well as knowledge) are organised or combined without necessaril­y increasing capital levels to raise output with the same level of resources. Real per capita (per person) gross domestic product (GDP) reflects a nation’s productivi­ty levels. The United States’s per capita GDP is about US$62 794, while Zimbabwe’s 2018 per capita GDP was US$2 147, before the last two years of recession.

The US, in general, is 29 times more productive than Zimbabwe. In the US, the minimum wage rate is US$7,25 per hour or us$58 per eight-hour working day. This daily minimum wage rate is higher than the monthly gross wages for some civil servants.

This roughly reflects the 29 times gap in the productivi­ty rates between the countries. Here is another way of looking at it; in Zimbabwe, each person on average , produces goods and services valued and exchanged at US$5 per day and in the US, a person produces goods and services valued and exchanged at us$172 a day. In theory, it becomes impossible then to have wages in Zimbabwe in general that are above US$5 a day. The whole point of bringing this comparison is to drive home a fundamenta­l point; we cannot expect to sustainabl­y have higher incomes as a country if we do not ramp up our productivi­ty.

The vision 2030 target of attaining an upper middle-income economy by 2030 implies that we expect average incomes to tick up in sympathy with rising productivi­ty. One low-hanging contributo­r to raising national productivi­ty is ramping up productivi­ty in agricultur­e through technology.

The same argument applies to other sectors of the economy. Let us illustrate further with our top maize producers. They use top-notch mechanised equipment and irrigation technologi­es. They are willing to pour money into acquiring and upgrading technologi­es to reach top maize yields. One of the elite farmers draws water from a source 7km away using powerful pumps to supply water to centre pivots that irrigate over 1 000ha. They spend a fortune to have their equipment programmed in South Africa to allow the machines to act with precision to avoid damaging their crops. The idea applies to other economic sectors of Zimbabwe — it is a productivi­ty imperative that needs to be driven by better technology, purchased or proprietar­y.

Technology does not have to be extremely advanced — the concept is that technology is a new way of combining resources to achieve more output with the same resources. Pfumvudza techniques qualify as technology because land, labour and capital are combined in a better way to raise maize yields by factors as high as 24-32 times. If one looks at the non-mechanised nature of entry level Pfumvudza and concludes that it is a backward method, it is to miss the nuances of the concept of technology. Productivi­ty gains can also come by way of value-adding to raw products — that too, requires technology.

World-class standards

What is common among the elite maize farmers in Zimbabwe is their commitment to bring world-class standards to bear upon their production and organisati­on. These farmers are not satisfied by being the best in Zimbabwe — they aim to reach the world-class levels.

This changes their outlook and mindset — they constantly benchmark with the emerging standards of excellence in every sphere of their operations. This is the way every producer in Zimbabwe in every economic sector ought to be thinking.

Mindset dictates behaviour. This can be done in steps by first aiming to beat national standards and norms of productivi­ty and then producing to benchmark with the best in the region and then globally. Mediocrity should not be allowed to set in our national psyche. This country is blessed with abundant and diversifie­d natural resources, yet we rank 162 out of 186 countries in terms of per capita GDP.

This is despite the fact that we often parade ourselves as having one of the most educated labour forces in Africa and having abundant natural resources. We have countries with limited natural resources that out-produce Zimbabwe by many multiples. Let us take The Netherland­s as an example; it is a country with a serious constraint of land and has a less favourable climate than Zimbabwe for farming. The irony is that The Netherland­s produces agricultur­al goods and services that are five times the size of the Zimbabwean economy. What makes the difference?

The Netherland­s resolved to pursue an agricultur­al productivi­ty agenda based on a dedicated focus on technology to overcome their natural resources constraint­s.

In Zimbabwe, with abundant natural resources, our elite maize farmers have shown us that the issue is neither the abundance or shortage of natural resources — it is a matter of a firm commitment to pursue a productivi­ty agenda based on existing top off-theshelf technologi­es, without having to develop our own proprietar­y technologi­es. This is what will really transform this economy — all constraint­s to productivi­ty gains, whether they be bad political choices or wrong mindsets, need to be addressed.

Chulu is a management consultant and a classic grounded theory researcher who has published research in an academic peer-reviewed internatio­nal journal. — brettchulu­

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