1 Understanding temperature Temperature is relative, so any colour can have a warm or cool version depending on the colours around it. Even warm colours such as red, yellow and orange can look cool, and likewise blue, green and violet can be made warm by using them in conjunction with other colours.
2 Block in shadow Once the drawing is established, I block in the shadow. For the colour of the shadow, I mix Ultramarine Blue and Burnt Umber to create a medium dark value, blue-grey. Because most art studio lights have a warm colour, the cool shadow creates dynamic colour contrast.
3 Transition tones I put a wash of dark, blue-grey on the border of the shadow shape. This softens the edge and creates a transition of value from dark to light. To mix the darker tone, I use Burnt Umber and Ultramarine Blue again, but with more pigment and less water.
4 Half-tones and lights To create a base flesh-tone, I use a mixture of Alizarin Crimson, Yellow Ochre and Ultramarine Blue. I add more yellow to the light-facing planes, which results in a more life-like colour. For the half-tones, I add more red and blue for greater colour saturation and a darker value.