Hy­dro­gen is con­verted into he­lium

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In­side our lo­cal star, hy­dro­gen is con­verted into he­lium in a process known as the pro­ton-pro­ton chain re­ac­tion.


Two pro­tons (hy­dro­gen nu­clei) col­lide to pro­duce deu­terium – a nu­clei con­sist­ing of one pro­ton and one neu­tron. In the col­li­sion, one neu­trino and one positron are emit­ted.


Deu­terium is struck by a pro­ton and con­verted into he­lium-3 – two pro­tons and one neu­tron. The fu­sion re­sults in the emis­sion of one pho­ton, which finds its way to the Sun's sur­face, turn­ing into sun­light.


Two he­lium-3 nu­clei col­lide. The re­sult is he­lium-4. The two pro­tons can now en­ter into new nu­clear pro­cesses.

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