Ves­sel Net­work Gave Flow­ers Advantage

The early flow­ers im­proved their own in­fra­struc­ture, de­vel­op­ing unique co­op­er­a­tion with in­sects and other an­i­mals to spread pollen and seeds.

Science Illustrated - - FLOWERS -

An­i­mals spread seeds

Af­ter the fer­til­i­sa­tion, the ovary with the fer­tilised egg cells typ­i­cally grows and ma­tures into some­thing ed­i­ble such as a berry or nut. The high-en­ergy fruit at­tracts an­i­mals, which eat it, spread­ing the seeds via their fae­ces. The seeds of some flow­ers must pass through bow­els to be able to ger­mi­nate.

Flow­ers tar­get pollen

The flower at­tracts in­sects by means of nec­tar, and the small crea­tures carry pollen to another flower. In­sects typ­i­cally stick to one type of flower per flight, so the plant can rest as­sured that its pollen is car­ried to a peer.

Pollen for lunch

Each pollen grain con­tains two sperm cells, which fer­til­ize one egg cell in the flower each. One fa­thers a new plant, whereas the other func­tions as the new plant's packed lunch.

Ves­sels dis­trib­ute nour­ish­ment

Early flow­er­ing plants de­vel­oped an im­proved net­work of ves­sels in their leaves, en­sur­ing that the plants can ef­fi­ciently dis­trib­ute wa­ter and nu­tri­ents to their cells. Ac­cord­ing to some sci­en­tists, this in­ven­tion was the most im­por­tant ex­pla­na­tion of the suc­cess of the flow­ers.

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