Vessel Network Gave Flowers Advantage
The early flowers improved their own infrastructure, developing unique cooperation with insects and other animals to spread pollen and seeds.
Animals spread seeds
After the fertilisation, the ovary with the fertilised egg cells typically grows and matures into something edible such as a berry or nut. The high-energy fruit attracts animals, which eat it, spreading the seeds via their faeces. The seeds of some flowers must pass through bowels to be able to germinate.
Flowers target pollen
The flower attracts insects by means of nectar, and the small creatures carry pollen to another flower. Insects typically stick to one type of flower per flight, so the plant can rest assured that its pollen is carried to a peer.
Pollen for lunch
Each pollen grain contains two sperm cells, which fertilize one egg cell in the flower each. One fathers a new plant, whereas the other functions as the new plant's packed lunch.
Vessels distribute nourishment
Early flowering plants developed an improved network of vessels in their leaves, ensuring that the plants can efficiently distribute water and nutrients to their cells. According to some scientists, this invention was the most important explanation of the success of the flowers.