Bil­lions of Uni­verses Were In­flated Around Us

The rapid ex­pan­sion of the uni­verse right af­ter the Big Bang hap­pened in a much larger space than the point that grew into our uni­verse.

Science Illustrated - - SPACE -

When the uni­verse ex­panded faster than the speed of light by in­fla­tion af­ter the Big Bang, it con­sisted of an in­ten­sive field of hy­po­thet­i­cal par­ti­cles called in­fla­tons, ac­cord­ing to the in­fla­tion the­ory. The in­fla­tion stopped, when the uni­verse reached the size of a foot­ball, and the in­fla­tons were con­verted into

quarks and elec­trons, which united into atoms and even­tu­ally gal­ax­ies dur­ing the con­tin­u­ous de­vel­op­ment of the uni­verse. But this in­fla­tion may have taken place in a

much big­ger space than the mi­cro­scopic point, which swelled into our uni­verse. So, bil­lions of uni­verses may have formed around us – a multiverse.

Multiverse has sev­eral shapes

The English as­tronomers’ dis­cov­ery has re­vived the dis­cus­sion of the many dif­fer­ent multiverse the­o­ries. In the most sim­ple ver­sions, the multiverse ma­te­ri­alised, be­cause in­fla­tion hap­pened in more places than the area that be­came our uni­verse, and so, bil­lions of uni­verses were pro­duced at the same time. An­other the­ory ex­pands the sim­ple multiverse by sug­gest­ing that in­fla­tion did not only oc­cur, when our uni­verse was formed, rather it is an eter­nal process that con­stantly adds more mul­ti­verses around the one in which our uni­verse ex­ists.

In a third and more com­plex ver­sion of the multiverse, the laws of quan­tum me­chan­ics ap­ply. Here, new uni­verses pop up from ex­ist­ing uni­verses. Ev­ery time a sit­u­a­tion has more than one pos­si­ble re­sult, a daugh­ter uni­verse oc­curs for each al­ter­na­tive. The most spec­u­la­tive multiverse model is based on su­per­string the­ory, which pre­dicts the ex­is­tence of at least 10 spa­cial di­men­sions. In the in­ter­pre­ta­tion of the multiverse the­ory, the ex­tra di­men­sions are, how­ever, as large as en­tire uni­verses and in­clude par­al­lel worlds that are hid­den around us. Only grav­ity can travel freely be­tween the di­men­sions.

Search for im­pos­si­ble proof

Sci­en­tists’ ex­pla­na­tions of the multiverse are only theoretical, i.e. they have no con­crete ev­i­dence to sup­port the ideas. And the ex­is­tence of the multiverse is by and large im­pos­si­ble to prove or dis­prove.

Al­though as­tronomers’ tele­scopes are im­prov­ing, it is im­pos­si­ble to peer be­yond the cos­mic hori­zon, which is the max­i­mum stretch across which light can reach Earth. Light travels at a speed of 300,000 km/s, and so, our view of the uni­verse – and pos­si­bly the multiverse – will al­ways be lim­ited by how far the light waves have been able to travel since the Big Bang 13.8 bil­lion years ago. The field of vi­sion now cov­ers 42 bil­lion light years, grow­ing by one light year an­nu­ally into all di­rec­tions. So, as­tronomers will never be able to look be­yond the cos­mic hori­zon and into a neigh­bour­ing uni­verse.

The lack of ev­i­dence of the ex­is­tence of the multiverse makes scep­tics ques­tion the sci­en­tific va­lid­ity of the the­ory, but sup­port­ers hope to be able to find in­di­rect proof based on ob­ser­va­tions in our own uni­verse, which could pro­vide the the­o­ries with some cred­i­bil­ity.

Max Teg­mark from the Mas­sachusetts In­sti­tute of Tech­nol­ogy in the US is one of the found­ing fa­thers of the multiverse the­o­ries. He points out that sci­en­tists do not nec­es­sar­ily

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