US ar­chives back Ti­bet as part of China

Tokyo Tri­als

China Daily (Hong Kong) - - TOP NEWS - By XU WEI xuwei@chi­nadaily.com.cn By ZHANG KUN in Shang­hai zhangkun@chi­nadaily.com.cn

A newly pub­lished book on the doc­u­ments of a late United States diplo­mat, who was also a scholar on Ti­bet, has pro­vided con­clu­sive ev­i­dence that the en­voy in the early 20th cen­tury con­sid­ered Ti­bet to be an in­sep­a­ra­ble part of China.

Se­lected Doc­u­ments Re­lat­ing to Ti­bet from Wil­liam W. Rock­hill Pa­pers, com­piled by Cheng Long, a for­mer as­so­ci­ate pro­fes­sor at Bei­jing Lan­guage and Cul­ture Uni­ver­sity, was pub­lished re­cently by China In­ter­con­ti­nen­tal Press.

Wil­liam Rock­hill (18541914), a US diplo­mat, ex­plorer and scholar on Ti­bet, was the au­thor of the United States’ Open Door Pol­icy for China and the au­thor of sev­eral books on Ti­betan stud­ies.

The sec­ond sea­son of the doc­u­men­tary se­ries The Tokyo Tri­als pre­miered on In­ter­na­tional Chan­nel Shang­hai on Tues­day.

To mark 70 years since the com­mence­ment of the postWorld War II tri­bunal against 28 mil­i­tary and po­lit­i­cal lead­ers of Ja­pan, the Shang­hai Me­dia Group News Cen­ter pro­duced the doc­u­men­tary with the Tokyo Trial Re­search Cen­ter at Shang­hai Jiao Tong Uni­ver­sity.

Ear­lier this month, the first sea­son of the doc­u­men­tary, which was pro­duced by the same team and aired last year, was named “Best Doc­u­men­tary Se­ries” at the Asian Tele­vi­sion Awards in Sin­ga­pore.

The sec­ond sea­son’s three episodes were made be­cause of stronger re­search and new dis­cov­er­ies, said Song Jiong-

“Rock­hill sev­eral times pointed out to the US pub­lic that Ti­bet is an in­sep­a­ra­ble part of China, and he in­tro­duced his po­si­tion to pres­i­dent Theodore Roo­sevelt,” Cheng said.

Cheng said he be­gan to pay at­ten­tion to Rock­hill while he was teach­ing at the Uni­ver­sity of South Carolina in 2008, after US stu­dents kept ask­ing ques­tions about Ti­bet.

“So I came up with an idea — to tell the history and cul­ture of Ti­bet by us­ing West­ern his­tor­i­cal doc­u­ments, which are more con­vinc­ing to them,” he said.

From 2008 to early this year, Cheng searched for doc­u­ments at such places as Har­vard and Yale uni­ver­si­ties, the Li­brary of Congress and the US Na­tional Ar­chives, and he col­lected abun­dant ma­te­ri­als The Bat­tle for the Truth, Be­yond Vic­tor’s Jus­tice, A History Etched in Mem­ory, high­light new his­tor­i­cal dis­cov­er­ies and aca­demic achieve­ments, in­clud­ing video of trial tes­ti­mony and ev­i­dence dis­closed for the first time. Newly dis­cov­ered video footage also shows wit­nesses speak­ing in court.

Cheng Zhaoqi, a pro­fes­sor of history at Shang­hai Jiao Tong Uni­ver­sity, said new ev­i­dence shows that the Ja­panese de­fen­dants re­peat­edly com­mit­ted perjury dur­ing the trial.

The tri­als, known as the In­ter­na­tional Mil­i­tary Tribu- from Rock­hill re­lated to Ti­bet.

Ac­cord­ing to the US State De­part­ment web­site, Rock­hill, who was born in Philadel­phia, was ap­pointed as the third as­sis­tant sec­re­tary of state in April 1894. He was ap­pointed US am­bas­sador to China in 1905 and held the po­si­tion un­til 1909.

Rock­hill was also a fa­mous scholar of Ti­bet and vis­ited the re­gion twice. In 1908, he met sev­eral times with the 13th Dalai Lama, with whom he kept in touch through let­ters.

Rock­hill was ap­pointed to an un­paid post at the US lega­tion in Bei­jing in 1883 on his first trip to China. He in­tended to per­fect his spo­ken Ti­betan and Chi­nese and to travel to Lhasa, ac­cord­ing to Wil­liam Woodville Rock­hill: Schol­arDi­plo­mat of the Ti­betan High­lands, a book by the late Ken­neth Wim­mel, who was a US for­eign af­fairs of­fi­cer.

Cheng said that Rock­hill had the habit of keep­ing copies of im­por­tant files and that th­ese ma­te­ri­als are well pre­served.

Rock­hill sev­eral times pointed out to the US pub­lic that Ti­bet is an in­sep­a­ra­ble part of China.” Cheng Long, a for­mer as­so­ci­ate pro­fes­sor at Bei­jing Lan­guage and Cul­ture Uni­ver­sity

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