White paper

China Daily (Hong Kong) - - FRONT PAGE -

The In­for­ma­tion Of­fice of the State Coun­cil on Tues­day pub­lished a white paper on China’s space ac­tiv­i­ties in 2016. Fol­low­ing is the full text:

Pre­am­ble

I. Pur­poses, Vi­sion and Prin­ci­ples of De­vel­op­ment II. Ma­jor De­vel­op­ments Since 2011 III. Ma­jor Tasks for the Next Five Years IV. Poli­cies and Mea­sures for De­vel­op­ment V. In­ter­na­tional Ex­changes and Co­op­er­a­tion

Con­clu­sion Pre­am­ble

Space ac­tiv­i­ties make up one of the most chal­leng­ing hi-tech fields which ex­ert enor­mous im­pact on other fields. Space ac­tiv­i­ties have greatly im­proved man’s knowl­edge of space, and pro­vide an im­por­tant driv­ing force for so­cial progress. Cur­rently, more and more coun­tries, in­clud­ing de­vel­op­ing ones, are mak­ing the de­vel­op­ment of space ac­tiv­i­ties an im­por­tant strate­gic choice. Thus space ac­tiv­i­ties around the world are flour­ish­ing.

The Chi­nese gov­ern­ment takes the space in­dus­try as an im­por­tant part of the na­tion’s over­all de­vel­op­ment strat­egy, and ad­heres to the prin­ci­ple of ex­plo­ration and uti­liza­tion of outer space for peace­ful pur­poses. Over the past 60 years of re­mark­able de­vel­op­ment since its space in­dus­try was es­tab­lished in 1956, China has made great achieve­ments in this sphere, in­clud­ing the de­vel­op­ment of atomic and hy­dro­gen bombs, mis­siles, man-made satel­lites, manned space­flight and lu­nar probe. It has opened up a path of self-re­liance and in­de­pen­dent in­no­va­tion, and has cre­ated the spirit of China’s space in­dus­try. To carry for­ward this spirit and stim­u­late en­thu­si­asm for in­no­va­tion, the Chi­nese gov­ern­ment set April 24 as China’s Space Day in 2016.

“To ex­plore the vast cos­mos, de­velop the space in­dus­try and build China into a space power is a dream we pur­sue un­remit­tingly.” In the next five years and be­yond China will up­hold the con­cepts of in­no­va­tive, bal­anced, green, open and shared de­vel­op­ment, and pro­mote the com­pre­hen­sive de­vel­op­ment of space sci­ence, space tech­nol­ogy and space ap­pli­ca­tions, so as to con­trib­ute more to both serv­ing na­tional de­vel­op­ment and im­prov­ing the well-be­ing of mankind.

To en­able the world com­mu­nity to bet­ter un­der­stand China’s space in­dus­try, we are pub­lish­ing this white paper to of­fer a brief in­tro­duc­tion to the ma­jor achieve­ments China has made in this field since 2011, its main tasks in the next five years, and its in­ter­na­tional ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion ef­forts.

I. Pur­poses, Vi­sion and Prin­ci­ples of De­vel­op­ment 1. Pur­poses

To ex­plore outer space and en­hance un­der­stand­ing of the earth and the cos­mos; to uti­lize outer space for peace­ful pur­poses, pro­mote hu­man civ­i­liza­tion and so­cial progress, and ben­e­fit the whole of mankind; to meet the de­mands of eco­nomic, sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal de­vel­op­ment, na­tional se­cu­rity and so­cial progress; and to im­prove the sci­en­tific and cul­tural lev­els of the Chi­nese peo­ple, pro­tect China’s na­tional rights and in­ter­ests, and build up its over­all strength.

2. Vi­sion

To build China into a space power in all re­spects, with the ca­pa­bil­i­ties to make in­no­va­tions in­de­pen­dently, to make sci­en­tific dis­cov­ery and re­search at the cut­ting edge, to pro­mote strong and sus­tained eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment, to ef­fec­tively and re­li­ably guar­an­tee na­tional se­cu­rity, to ex­er­cise sound and ef­fi­cient gover­nance, and to carry out mu­tu­ally ben­e­fi­cial in­ter­na­tional ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion; to have an ad­vanced and open space sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy in­dus­try, sta­ble and re­li­able space in­fra­struc­ture, pi­o­neer­ing and in­no­va­tive pro­fes­sion­als, and a rich and pro­found space spirit; to pro­vide strong sup­port for the re­al­iza­tion of the Chi­nese Dream of the re­newal of the Chi­nese na­tion, and make pos­i­tive con­tri­bu­tions to hu­man civ­i­liza­tion and progress.

3. Prin­ci­ples

China’s space in­dus­try is sub­ject to and serves the na­tional over­all de­vel­op­ment strat­egy, and ad­heres to the prin­ci­ples of in­no­va­tive, co­or­di­nated, peace­ful and open de­vel­op­ment.

In­no­va­tive de­vel­op­ment, China takes in­de­pen­dent in­no­va­tion as the core of the de­vel­op­ment of its space in­dus­try. It im­ple­ments ma­jor space sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy projects, strength­ens sci­en­tific ex­plo­ration and tech­no­log­i­cal in­no­va­tion, deep­ens in­sti­tu­tional re­forms, and stim­u­lates in­no­va­tion and cre­ativ­ity, work­ing to pro­mote rapid de­vel­op­ment of the space in­dus­try.

Co­or­di­nated de­vel­op­ment, China ra­tio­nally al­lo­cates var­i­ous re­sources, en­cour­ages and guides so­cial forces to take an or­derly part in space de­vel­op­ment. All space ac­tiv­i­ties are co­or­di­nated un­der an over­all plan of the state to pro­mote the com­pre­hen­sive de­vel­op­ment of space sci­ence, space tech­nol­ogy and space ap­pli­ca­tions, and to im­prove the qual­ity and ef­fi­ciency of over­all space de­vel­op­ment.

Peace­ful de­vel­op­ment, China al­ways ad­heres to the prin­ci­ple of the use of outer space for peace­ful pur­poses, and op­poses the weaponiza­tion of or an arms race in outer space. The coun­try de­vel­ops and uti­lizes space re­sources in a pru­dent man­ner, takes ef­fec­tive mea­sures to pro­tect the space en­vi­ron­ment to en­sure a peace­ful and clean outer space and guar­an­tee that its space ac­tiv­i­ties ben­e­fit the whole of mankind.

Open de­vel­op­ment, China per­sists in com­bin­ing in­de­pen­dence and self-re­liance with open­ing to the out­side world and in­ter­na­tional co­op­er­a­tion. It ac­tively en­gages in in­ter­na­tional ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion on the ba­sis of equal­ity and mu­tual ben­e­fit, peace­ful uti­liza­tion, and inclusive de­vel­op­ment, striv­ing to pro­mote progress of space in­dus­try for mankind as a whole and its long-term sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment.

II. Ma­jor De­vel­op­ments Since 2011

Since 2011 China’s space in­dus­try has wit­nessed rapid progress man­i­fested by markedly en­hanced ca­pac­ity in in­de­pen­dent in­no­va­tion and ac­cess to outer space, con­stant im­prove­ment in space in­fra­struc­ture, smooth im­ple­men­ta­tion of ma­jor projects such as manned space­flight, lu­nar ex­plo­ration, the Bei­dou Nav­i­ga­tion Sys­tem and high-res­o­lu­tion earth ob­ser­va­tion sys­tem, and sub­stan­tial achieve­ments in space sci­ence, tech­nol­ogy and ap­pli­ca­tions.

1. Space trans­porta­tion sys­tem

From 2011 to Novem­ber 2016 the Long March car­rier rocket series com­pleted 86 launch mis­sions, send­ing over 100 space­craft into tar­get or­bit with a suc­cess rate of 97.67 per­cent, in­di­ca­tion of in­creas­ing ef­fec­tive­ness and high-den­sity launch­ing ca­pa­bil­ity of car­rier rock­ets. The Long March 5 (CZ-5), China’s new­est gen­er­a­tion of car­rier rock­ets with a max­i­mum car­ry­ing ca­pac­ity, made its maiden flight, and in­creased the di­am­e­ter of liq­uid fuel rocket from 3.35 m to 5 m, with a max­i­mum pay­load ca­pac­ity of about 25 tons to low earth or­bit and about 14 tons to geo­sta­tion­ary trans­fer or­bit, sig­nif­i­cantly im­prov­ing the car­ry­ing ca­pac­ity of the Long March rocket fam­ily and be­com­ing a sym­bol of the up­grad­ing of China’s car­rier rock­ets. The de­vel­op­ment of the 120-ton liq­uid oxy­gen and kerosene engine was test fired, which pow­ered Long March 6 and Long March 7 on their maiden flights. The Long March 11, a solid-fuel car­rier rocket, also made a suc­cess­ful maiden launch, fur­ther en­rich­ing the Long March rocket fam­ily.

2. Man-made satel­lites

(1) Earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lites. The func­tion of the Fengyun (Wind and Cloud), Haiyang (Ocean), Ziyuan (Re­sources), Gaofen (High Res­o­lu­tion), Yao­gan (Re­mote-Sens­ing) and Tian­hui (Space Map­ping) satel­lite series and con­stel­la­tion of small satel­lites for en­vi­ron­ment and dis­as­ter mon­i­tor­ing and fore­cast­ing has been im­proved. The Fengyun po­lar or­bit me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal satel­lite has suc­ceeded in net­work­ing ob­ser­va­tion by morn­ing and after­noon satel­lites, while its geo­sta­tion­ary earth or­bit (GEO) me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal satel­lite has formed a busi­ness mode of “multi-satel­lites in or­bit, co­or­di­nated op­er­a­tion, mu­tual backup and en­cryp­tion at the ap­pro­pri­ate time.” The Haiyang-2 satel­lite is ca­pa­ble of all-weather, full-time and high-ac­cu­racy ob­ser­va­tion of marine dy­namic pa­ram­e­ters such as sea height, sea wave and sea sur­face wind. The Ziyuan-1 02C satel­lite was launched, the Ziyuan-3 01 and 02 stereo map­ping satel­lites have achieved dou­ble star net­work­ing and op­er­at­ing. The China High-res­o­lu­tion Earth Ob­ser­va­tion Sys­tem pro­gram has been fully im­ple­mented; the Gaofen-2 is ca­pa­ble of sub-me­ter op­ti­cal re­mote-sens­ing ob­ser­va­tion, the Gaofen-3 has a Syn­thetic Aper­ture Radar (SAR) imag­ing in­stru­ment that is ac­cu­rate to one me­ter and the Gaofen-4 is China’s first geosyn­chronous or­bit high-res­o­lu­tion earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lite. Satel­lite C of the en­vi­ron­ment and dis­as­ter mon­i­tor­ing and fore­cast­ing small satel­lite con­stel­la­tion has been put into use. The suc­cess­ful launch­ing of the Kuaizhou-1 and Kuaizhou-2, which adopted in­te­grated de­sign of the satel­lite and the launch ve­hi­cle, has im­proved China’s emer­gency re­sponse ca­pa­bil­ity in space. The Jilin-1, a high-res­o­lu­tion re­mote-sens­ing satel­lite for com­mer­cial use has been launched and put into ser­vice.

(2) Com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing satel­lites. China has com­pre­hen­sively ad­vanced the con­struc­tion of fixed, mo­bile and data re­lay satel­lite sys­tems. The suc­cess­ful launch of com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lites such as Yatai and Zhongx­ing rep­re­sented the com­ple­tion of a fixed com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lite sup­port sys­tem whose com­mu­ni­ca­tions ser­vices cover all of China’s ter­ri­tory as well as ma­jor ar­eas of the world. The Tiantong-1, China’s first mo­bile com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lite, has been suc­cess­fully launched. The first-gen­er­a­tion data re­lay satel­lite sys­tem com­posed of three Tian­lian-1 satel­lites has been com­pleted, and high-speed com­mu­ni­ca­tion test of satel­lite-ground laser link has been crowned with suc­cess. In ad­di­tion, the de­vel­op­ment of the DFH-5 su­per com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lite plat­form is go­ing smoothly.

(3) Nav­i­ga­tion and po­si­tion­ing satel­lites. The Bei­dou Nav­i­ga­tion Satel­lite Sys­tem (Bei­dou-2) has been com­pleted, with the net­work­ing of 14 Bei­dou nav­i­ga­tion satel­lites, of­fi­cially of­fer­ing po­si­tion­ing, ve­loc­ity mea­sure­ment, tim­ing, wide area dif­fer­ence and short-mes­sage com­mu­ni­ca­tion ser­vice to cus­tomers in the Asia-Pa­cific re­gion. Bei­dou’s global satel­lite nav­i­ga­tion sys­tem is un­der­go­ing smooth con­struc­tion.

(4) New tech­no­log­i­cal test satel­lites. China has launched the Shi­jian-9 satel­lite series for tech­no­log­i­cal ex­per­i­ments, pro­vid­ing an im­por­tant way to test new tech­nolo­gies.

3. Manned space­flight

In June 2012 and June 2013, the Shen­zhou-9 and Shen­zhou-10 manned space­craft were launched to dock with the tar­get space­craft Tian­gong-1. They used man­ual and au­to­matic op­er­a­tions re­spec­tively, sym­bol­iz­ing break­throughs for China in space­craft ren­dezvous and dock­ing tech­nol­ogy and full suc­cess in its first op­er­a­tion of a manned space trans­porta­tion sys­tem. In Septem­ber and Oc­to­ber 2016 the Tian­gong-2 space lab­o­ra­tory and Shen­zhou-11 manned space­craft were launched and formed an assem­bly that op­er­ates steadily, with the mis­sion of car­ry­ing out sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy ex­per­i­ments in space, in­di­cat­ing that China has mas­tered tech­nolo­gies con­cern­ing as­tro­nauts’ mid-term stay in or­bit, and long-term ground mis­sion sup­port. Cur­rently, China has mas­tered ma­jor space tech­nolo­gies such as manned space trans­porta­tion, space ex­trave­hic­u­lar ac­tiv­ity, space dock­ing, op­er­at­ing in assem­bly and as­tro­nauts’ mid-term stay in or­bit.

4. Deep space ex­plo­ration

In De­cem­ber 2012 the Chang’e-2 lu­nar probe made a suc­cess­ful ob­ser­va­tion trip over as­ter­oid 4179 (Tou­tatis). In De­cem­ber 2013 the Chang’e-3 re­al­ized the first soft land­ing on the sur­face of an ex­trater­res­trial body by a Chi­nese space­craft and com­pleted pa­trol and ex­plo­ration on the sur­face of the moon. In Novem­ber 2014 China achieved suc­cess in the reen­try and re­turn flight test of the third-phase lu­nar ex­plo­ration engi­neer­ing, in­di­cat­ing that China has mas­tered the key tech­nol­ogy of space­craft reen­try and re­turn flight in a speed close to sec­ond cos­mic ve­loc­ity.

The Lu­nar Ex­plo­ration Pro­gram helped mankind to ac­quire a high­res­o­lu­tion map of the moon and a high-def­i­ni­tion im­age of Si­nus Iridum, and con­ducted re­search of lu­nar sur­face mor­phol­ogy, lu­nar struc­ture, el­e­men­tal com­po­si­tion of the lu­nar sur­face, lu­nar sur­face en­vi­ron­ment, lu­nar space en­vi­ron­ment and moon-based astro­nom­i­cal ob­ser­va­tion.

5. Space launch sites

In June 2016 the Wen­chang Launch Site held its first launch, mark­ing a new-gen­er­a­tion launch site de­signed and built by China. The site is en­vi­ron­men­tally friendly and made break­throughs in in­no­va­tion. Ren­o­va­tions have also been ac­com­plished in the Ji­uquan, Taiyuan and Xichang launch sites, form­ing a launch site net­work cov­er­ing both coastal and in­land ar­eas, high and low al­ti­tudes, and var­i­ous tra­jec­to­ries to sat­isfy the launch needs of manned space­ships, space lab­o­ra­tory core mod­ules, deep space probes and all kinds of satel­lites.

6. Space Teleme­try, Track­ing and Com­mand (TT&C)

The Tian­lian-1 data re­lay satel­lite series have achieved global net­work­ing and op­er­at­ing. The Yuan­wang-7, a space­craft track­ing ship has made its maiden voy­age. Deep space TT&C sta­tions have been built and put into use. China is con­stantly im­prov­ing its space teleme­try, track­ing and com­mand set­ups, and es­tab­lished a multi-func­tion­ing TT&C net­work fea­tur­ing space, marine and ground in­te­gra­tion with a proper scale. The flight con­trol abil­ity of space­craft has been grad­u­ally im­proved, com­plet­ing the TT&C mis­sions of the Shen­zhou space­craft series, Tian­gong-1 tar­get space­craft, Chang’e lu­nar probe series and earth or­bit satel­lites.

7. Space ap­pli­ca­tions

(1) Ap­pli­ca­tion of earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lites. The ground sys­tem and ap­pli­ca­tions of earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lites are im­prov­ing, the fields and lev­els in which these satel­lites are used are ex­pand­ing and the ap­pli­ca­tion ben­e­fits are grow­ing. The ground sta­tions re­ceiv­ing data from land, ocean and me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal ob­ser­va­tion satel­lites are op­er­at­ing based on com­pre­hen­sive plan­ning, a satel­lite data ground net­work with the ca­pac­ity of re­ceiv­ing data from high- and low-or­bit satel­lites and rea­son­able ar­range­ment at home and abroad. China has also es­tab­lished, based on com­pre­hen­sive plan­ning, a ground data pro­cess­ing sys­tem for earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lites, com­mon ap­pli­ca­tion sup­port­ing plat­form, and multi-level net­work data dis­tri­bu­tion sys­tem, greatly in­creas­ing its abil­ity in data pro­cess­ing, ar­chiv­ing, dis­tri­bu­tion, ser­vices pro­vi­sion and quan­ti­ta­tive ap­pli­ca­tions. In­dus­trial ap­pli­ca­tion sys­tem build­ing is in full swing, hav­ing com­pleted 18 in­dus­trial and two re­gional ap­pli­ca­tion demon­stra­tion sys­tems, and set up 26 pro­vin­cial-level data and ap­pli­ca­tion cen­ters. An in­te­grated in­for­ma­tion ser­vice shar­ing plat­form for a high-res­o­lu­tion earth ob­ser­va­tion sys­tem has been built. Earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lite data is now widely used in in­dus­trial, re­gional and pub­lic ser­vices for eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment.

(2) Ap­pli­ca­tion of com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing satel­lites. The ground fa­cil­i­ties such as TT&C sta­tion, gate­way sta­tion, up­link sta­tion and cal­i­bra­tion field of com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lites have been im­proved. A satel­lite com­mu­ni­ca­tions net­work and satel­lite ra­dio and TV net­work of adequate scale to meet the needs of cer­tain ser­vices have been built, fur­ther im­prov­ing the com­mu­ni­ca­tions ser­vice abil­ity. These ap­pli­ca­tions play an im­por­tant role in ra­dio and tele­vi­sion ser­vices, dis­tance ed­u­ca­tion and telemedicine. The emer­gency satel­lite com­mu­ni­ca­tions sys­tem has pro­vided im­por­tant sup­port for the fight against flood and drought, for res­cue and re­lief work, and for han­dling ma­jor emer­gen­cies.

(3) Ap­pli­ca­tion of nav­i­ga­tion and po­si­tion­ing satel­lites. The Bei­dou Nav­i­ga­tion Satel­lite Sys­tem has sig­nif­i­cantly im­proved its ac­cu­racy and reli­a­bil­ity, bring­ing into play an in­de­pen­dent, con­trol­lable, com­plete and ma­ture Bei­dou in­dus­trial chain and the three sys­tems of Bei­dou in­dus­trial guar­an­tee, ap­pli­ca­tion pro­mo­tion and in­no­va­tion. The Bei­dou Nav­i­ga­tion Sys­tem is widely used in trans­porta­tion, mar­itime fish­eries, hy­dro­log­i­cal mon­i­tor­ing, weather fore­cast­ing, sur­vey­ing and map­ping, for­est fire pre­ven­tion, time syn­chro­niza­tion of com­mu­ni­ca­tion, power dis­patch­ing, dis­as­ter re­duc­tion and re­lief and emer­gency res­cue, in­flu­enc­ing all as­pects of peo­ple’s life and pro­duc­tion, and in­ject­ing new vi­tal­ity into global eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment.

(4) Trans­for­ma­tion and ap­pli­ca­tion of space tech­nol­ogy. A new busi­ness model fea­tur­ing the In­ter­net plus satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tions is com­ing into be­ing, pro­vid­ing more con­ve­nient and high-qual­ity ser­vices to the pub­lic. Sec­ondary de­vel­op­ment, trans­for­ma­tion and ap­pli­ca­tions of space tech­nol­ogy make pos­si­ble the pro­vi­sion of high­qual­ity prod­ucts and ser­vices to rel­e­vant in­dus­tries, and help to sup­port and pro­pel the de­vel­op­ment of new ma­te­ri­als, in­tel­li­gent man­u­fac­tur­ing and elec­tronic in­for­ma­tion, among oth­ers.

8. Space sci­ence

(1) Space sci­ence satel­lites. China has suc­cess­fully launched the Dark Mat­ter Par­ti­cle Ex­plorer, Shi­jian-10 and Quan­tum Sci­ence Ex­per­i­ment Satel­lite, of­fer­ing im­por­tant means for fron­tier sci­en­tific re­search.

(2) Space en­vi­ron­ment sci­en­tific ex­per­i­ments. China has car­ried out a series of space sci­ence ex­per­i­ments us­ing space sci­ence satel­lites, Chang’e lu­nar probe, Shen­zhou space­craft series and Tian­gong-1 tar­get air­craft, deep­en­ing the un­der­stand­ing of the mech­a­nism of bi­o­log­i­cal growth and ma­te­ri­als prepa­ra­tion un­der the con­di­tions of space mi­cro­grav­ity and in­tense ra­di­a­tion, and achiev­ing some in­flu­en­tial re­search find­ings.

(3) Space en­vi­ron­ment de­tec­tion and fore­cast. China has iden­ti­fied the space en­vi­ron­ment’s ma­jor pa­ram­e­ters and ef­fects us­ing space sci­ence satel­lites and the Shen­zhou space­craft series to pro­vide space en­vi­ron­men­tal mon­i­tor­ing and fore­cast­ing ser­vices for the safe op­er­a­tion of space­craft.

9. Space de­bris

China has im­proved the mon­i­tor­ing and mit­i­ga­tion of and early warn­ing and pro­tec­tion against space de­bris. It has also en­hanced stan­dards and reg­u­la­tions in this re­gard. The mon­i­tor­ing of and early warn­ing against space de­bris have been put into reg­u­lar op­er­a­tion, en­sur­ing the safe op­er­a­tion of space­craft in or­bit. China has also made break­throughs in pro­tec­tion de­sign tech­nolo­gies, ap­ply­ing them to the pro­tec­tion projects of space­craft against space de­bris. In ad­di­tion, all Long March car­rier rock­ets have up­per stage pas­si­va­tion, and dis­carded space­craft are moved out of or­bit to pro­tect the space en­vi­ron­ment.

III. Ma­jor Tasks for the Next Five Years

In the next five years China plans to ex­pe­dite the de­vel­op­ment of its space en­deav­ors by con­tin­u­ing to en­hance the ba­sic ca­pac­i­ties of its space in­dus­try, strengthen re­search into key and cut­ting-edge tech­nolo­gies, and im­ple­ment manned space­flight, lu­nar ex­plo­ration, the Bei­dou Nav­i­ga­tion Satel­lite Sys­tem, high­res­o­lu­tion earth ob­ser­va­tion sys­tem, new-gen­er­a­tion launch ve­hi­cles and other im­por­tant projects. Fur­ther­more, the coun­try is to launch new key sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal pro­grams and ma­jor projects, com­plete, by and large, its space in­fra­struc­ture sys­tem, ex­pand its space ap­pli­ca­tions in breadth and depth, and fur­ther con­duct re­search into space sci­ence, pro­mot­ing the in­te­grated de­vel­op­ment of space sci­ence, tech­nol­ogy and ap­pli­ca­tions.

1. Space trans­port sys­tem

We will de­velop and launch medium-lift launch ve­hi­cles which are non-toxic and pol­lu­tion-free, im­prove the new-gen­er­a­tion launch ve­hi­cle fam­ily, and en­hance their reli­a­bil­ity.

En­deav­ors will be made to re­search key tech­nolo­gies and fur­ther study the plans for de­vel­op­ing heavy-lift launch ve­hi­cles. Break­throughs are ex­pected in key tech­nolo­gies for the over­all sys­tem, high-thrust liq­uid oxy­gen and kerosene en­gines, and oxy­gen and hy­dro­gen en­gines of such launch ve­hi­cles. There­after the heavy-lift launch ve­hi­cle project will be ac­ti­vated.

China will con­duct re­search into the tech­nolo­gies for low-cost launch ve­hi­cles, new up­per stage and the re­us­able space trans­porta­tion sys­tem be­tween the earth and lowearth or­bit.

2. Space in­fra­struc­ture

China is to im­prove its satel­lite sys­tems and their ba­sic re­lated items, de­velop the three ma­jor satel­lite sys­tems of re­mote-sens­ing, com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing, and nav­i­ga­tion and po­si­tion­ing, and build a space-ground in­te­grated in­for­ma­tion net­work. In this way, a space in­fra­struc­ture sys­tem ca­pa­ble of pro­vid­ing steady and sus­tained ser­vices will take shape, boost­ing the satel­lite and re­lated ap­pli­ca­tions in­dus­trial sec­tor.

(1) Satel­lite re­mote-sens­ing sys­tem. In ac­cor­dance with the pol­icy guide­line for de­vel­op­ing mul­ti­func­tional satel­lites, and cre­at­ing net­works of satel­lites and in­te­grat­ing them, we will fo­cus on three series of satel­lites for ob­serv­ing the land, ocean and at­mos­phere, re­spec­tively. China is to de­velop and launch satel­lites ca­pa­ble of high­res­o­lu­tion multi-mode op­ti­cal ob­ser­va­tion, L-band dif­fer­en­tial in­ter­fer­o­met­ric syn­thetic aper­ture radar imag­ing, car­bon mon­i­tor­ing of the ter­ri­to­rial ecosys­tem, at­mo­spheric Li­dar de­tec­tion, ocean salin­ity de­tec­tion and new-type ocean color ob­ser­va­tion. We will take steps to build our ca­pa­bil­i­ties of highly ef­fi­cient, com­pre­hen­sive global ob­ser­va­tion and data ac­qui­si­tion with a ra­tio­nal al­lo­ca­tion of low-, medium- and high-spa­tial res­o­lu­tion tech­nolo­gies, and an op­ti­mized com­bi­na­tion of mul­ti­ple ob­ser­va­tion meth­ods. China will make over­all con­struc­tion and im­prove­ment on re­mote-sens­ing satel­lite re­ceiv­ing sta­tion net­works, cal­i­bra­tion and val­i­da­tion fields, data cen­ters, data-shar­ing plat­forms and com­mon ap­pli­ca­tion sup­port­ing plat­forms to pro­vide re­mote-sens­ing satel­lite data re­ceiv­ing ser­vices across the world.

(2) Satel­lite com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing sys­tem. This sys­tem is ori­ented to­ward in­dus­trial and mar­ket ap­pli­ca­tions, and mainly op­er­ates through busi­ness mod­els while meet­ing pub­lic wel­fare needs. China will de­velop both fixed and mo­bile com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing as well as data re­lay satel­lites, build a space-ground in­te­grated in­for­ma­tion net­work con­sist­ing of space­based sys­tems such as high-earth-or­bit broad­band satel­lite sys­tems and low-earth-or­bit mo­bile satel­lite sys­tems, and ground-based sys­tems such as satel­lite-ac­cess sta­tions. TT&C sta­tions, gate­way sta­tions, up­link sta­tions, cal­i­bra­tion fields and other satel­lite ground fa­cil­i­ties are to be built syn­chronously. These ef­forts are ex­pected to bring about a com­pre­hen­sive sys­tem ca­pa­ble of pro­vid­ing broad­band com­mu­ni­ca­tions, fixed com­mu­ni­ca­tions, di­rect-broad­cast tele­vi­sion, mo­bile com­mu­ni­ca­tions and mo­bile mul­ti­me­dia broad­cast ser­vices. A global satel­lite com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing sys­tem in­te­grated with the ground com­mu­ni­ca­tions net­work will be es­tab­lished step by step.

(3) Satel­lite nav­i­ga­tion sys­tem. China is to con­tin­u­ously en­hance the ser­vice ca­pac­i­ties of the Bei­dou-2. With sus­tained ef­forts in build­ing the Bei­dou global sys­tem, we plan to start pro­vid­ing ba­sic ser­vices to coun­tries along the Silk Road Eco­nomic Belt and 21st-Cen­tury Mar­itime Silk Road in 2018, form a net­work con­sist­ing of 35 satel­lites for global ser­vices by 2020, and pro­vide all clients with more ac­cu­rate and more re­li­able ser­vices through ad­vanc­ing the ground­based and satel­lite-based aug­men­ta­tion sys­tems in an in­te­grated way.

3. Manned space­flight

China plans to launch the Tianzhou-1 cargo space­craft to dock with the earth-or­bit­ing Tian­gong-2 space lab­o­ra­tory, and re­search and master key tech­nolo­gies for cargo trans­port and re­plen­ish­ment to ac­cu­mu­late ex­pe­ri­ence in build­ing and op­er­at­ing a space sta­tion.

We aim to com­plete the main re­search and de­vel­op­ment work on the space sta­tion mod­ules, and start assem­bly and op­er­a­tion of the space sta­tion.

We strive to ac­quire key tech­nolo­gies and con­duct ex­per­i­ments on such tech­nolo­gies to raise our manned space­flight ca­pac­ity, lay­ing a foun­da­tion for ex­plor­ing and de­vel­op­ing cis­lu­nar space.

4. Deep-space ex­plo­ration

China will con­tinue its lu­nar ex­plo­ration project, and strive to at­tain the au­to­mated ex­trater­res­trial sam­pling and re­turn­ing tech­nol­ogy by space ex­plor­ers. We plan to ful­fill the three strate­gic steps of “or­bit­ing, land­ing and re­turn­ing” for the lu­nar ex­plo­ration project by launch­ing the Chang’ e-5 lu­nar probe by the end of 2017 and re­al­iz­ing re­gional soft land­ing, sam­pling and re­turn. We will launch the Chang’e-4 lu­nar probe around 2018 to achieve mankind’ s first soft land­ing on the far side of the moon, and con­duct in situ and rov­ing de­tec­tion and re­lay com­mu­ni­ca­tions at earth-moon L2 point. Through the lu­nar ex­plo­ration project, to­po­graphic and ge­o­log­i­cal sur­veys will be im­ple­mented and lab­o­ra­tory re­search con­ducted on lu­nar sam­ples; ge­o­log­i­cal sur­vey and re­search as well as low-fre­quency ra­dio as­tron­omy ob­ser­va­tion and re­search will be car­ried out tar­get­ing the land­ing area on the far side of the moon for a bet­ter un­der­stand­ing of the for­ma­tion and evo­lu­tion of the moon.

China in­tends to ex­e­cute its first Mars ex­plo­ration op­er­a­tion, and grasp key tech­nolo­gies for or­bit­ing, land­ing and rov­ing ex­plo­ration. It plans to launch the first Mars probe by 2020 to carry out or­bit­ing and rov­ing ex­plo­ration. It will con­duct fur­ther stud­ies and key tech­no­log­i­cal re­search on the bring­ing back of sam­ples from Mars, as­ter­oid ex­plo­ration, ex­plo­ration of the Jupiter sys­tem and planet fly-by ex­plo­ration. When con­di­tions al­low, re­lated projects will be im­ple­mented to con­duct re­search into ma­jor sci­en­tific ques­tions such as the ori­gin and evo­lu­tion of the so­lar sys­tem, and search for ex­trater­res­trial life.

5. Ex­per­i­ments on new space tech­nolo­gies

China is to per­form ex­per­i­ments on new space tech­nolo­gies to pro­vide solid tech­no­log­i­cal sup­port for its space in­dus­try.

China will de­velop and launch tech­nol­ogy ex­per­i­ment satel­lites, in­clud­ing the Shi­jian-13, Shi­jian-17 and Shi­jian18, and a global car­bon diox­ide mon­i­tor­ing satel­lite, and con­duct ex­per­i­ments on key tech­nolo­gies for new elec­tric propul­sion, laser com­mu­ni­ca­tions and com­mon plat­forms of new-gen­er­a­tion com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lites. It plans to build in-or­bit ser­vic­ing and main­te­nance sys­tems for space­craft and make in-or­bit ex­per­i­ments on new the­o­ries, tech­nolo­gies and prod­ucts by tap­ping var­i­ous re­sources.

6. Space launch sites

China will im­prove its ex­ist­ing space launch sites by rais­ing the reli­a­bil­ity and IT ap­pli­ca­tion level and con­duct­ing adap­tive im­prove­ments to ground fa­cil­i­ties and equip­ment, and in­creas­ing the com­ple­men­tar­ity of mis­sion en­force­ment and backup ca­pac­i­ties of space launch sites, equip­ping them with ba­sic ca­pac­i­ties to carry out var­i­ous launch mis­sions. It will ex­plore and ad­vance the build­ing of space launch sites that are open to co­op­er­a­tion and shar­ing, form a new space launch sys­tem fea­tur­ing ra­tio­nal divi­sion of work, mu­tual com­ple­men­tar­ity, smooth co­or­di­na­tion, se­cu­rity and reli­a­bil­ity. The in­te­grated ca­pac­i­ties and func­tions of space launch sites will be en­hanced and ex­ploited to meet var­i­ous needs.

7. Space TT&C

China will en­hance its ex­ist­ing space Teleme­try, Track­ing and Com­mand sys­tems. It aims to build and op­er­ate a sec­ond-gen­er­a­tion re­lay satel­lite sys­tem, raise the ac­cu­racy of the or­bit de­ter­mi­na­tion process for space­craft, im­prove its TT&C ca­pa­bil­i­ties in man­ag­ing in-or­bit space­craft, and strengthen in­te­grated and ef­fi­cient uti­liza­tion of TT&C re­sources, to build a space­ground in­te­grated TT&C net­work fea­tur­ing se­cu­rity, reli­a­bil­ity, quick re­sponse, flex­i­ble ac­cess, ef­fi­cient op­er­a­tion and di­verse ser­vices. It plans to ex­plore the de­vel­op­ment of com­mer­cial TT&C sys­tems, seek new ser­vice modes, and in­ten­sify in­ter­na­tional co­op­er­a­tion and net­work­ing in the field of TT&C, form­ing a new TT&C ser­vice pat­tern marked by open­ness and shar­ing.

8. Space ap­pli­ca­tions

China will im­prove its space ap­pli­ca­tion ser­vice sys­tem ori­ented to­ward in­dus­tries, re­gions and the pub­lic, ex­pand in­te­grated ap­pli­ca­tion of space in­for­ma­tion, and im­prove the ap­pli­ca­tion and mar­ket­ing of sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal re­sults. Con­se­quently, the scale, op­er­a­tional stan­dards and in­dus­tri­al­iza­tion level of space ap­pli­ca­tions will be raised to serve na­tional se­cu­rity and na­tional eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment.

(1) In­dus­trial ap­pli­ca­tions. In view of the need for global land sur­vey­ing and geo­graphic in­for­ma­tion ac­qui­si­tion, re­source de­vel­op­ment and en­vi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion, mar­itime de­vel­op­ment and man­age­ment, and the pro­tec­tion of re­lated rights and in­ter­ests, nat­u­ral dis­as­ter pre­ven­tion and re­duc­tion and emer­gency re­sponse, global cli­mate change con­trol, food se­cu­rity, so­cial man­age­ment and pub­lic ser­vices, China plans to con­sol­i­date the in­te­grated ap­pli­ca­tion of space in­fra­struc­ture, and en­hance its abil­ity to pro­vide timely, ac­cu­rate and steady ser­vices.

(2) Re­gional ap­pli­ca­tions. In view of the need for re­gional ur­ban plan­ning, con­struc­tion, op­er­a­tion man­age­ment and so­cial ser­vices, China will de­velop com­pre­hen­sive satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tions, such as new urbanization lay­out, and smart towns and smart trans­port ap­pli­ca­tions, to serve the co­or­di­nated de­vel­op­ment of the east­ern, cen­tral, west­ern, north­east­ern parts of the coun­try, col­lab­o­rated de­vel­op­ment of Bei­jing, Tian­jin and He­bei, build­ing of the Yangtze River Eco­nomic Belt, and eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment of other re­gions in China. In ad­di­tion, China will in­ten­sify its ser­vices ori­ented to­ward the na­tion­ally tar­geted poverty al­le­vi­a­tion and erad­i­ca­tion, and op­er­ate space in­for­ma­tion ser­vices tar­get­ing old revo­lu­tion­ary base ar­eas, eth­nic mi­nori­ties re­gions, fron­tier ar­eas, poverty-stricken ar­eas and is­lands in the sea.

(3) Pub­lic ser­vices. Aim­ing at pub­lic in­for­ma­tion con­sump­tion and ser­vices, in­clud­ing smart tourism, broad­cast­ing and TV, dis­tance learn­ing, telemedicine, and cul­tural com­mu­ni­ca­tion, China is de­ter­mined to de­velop smart ter­mi­nals of satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tions and wear­able elec­tron­ics, im­prove space in­for­ma­tion fu­sion ap­pli­ca­tions, and ad­vance the in­dus­tri­al­iza­tion of space ap­pli­ca­tions, fos­ter­ing new growth points for the na­tional econ­omy.

9. Space sci­ence

Tar­get­ing ma­jor fron­tier ar­eas of space sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy, China will im­ple­ment a series of new space sci­ence satel­lite pro­grams, es­tab­lish a series of space sci­ence satel­lites fea­tur­ing sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment, and re­in­force ba­sic ap­pli­ca­tion re­search. Ma­jor dis­cov­er­ies and break­throughs are ex­pected in the fron­tier ar­eas of space sci­ence to fur­ther mankind’s knowl­edge of the uni­verse. (1) Space as­tron­omy and space physics China will seek ev­i­dence of the ex­is­tence of dark mat­ter by us­ing dark mat­ter par­ti­cle ex­plo­ration satel­lites to de­tect high-en­ergy elec­trons and high­en­ergy gamma rays in the uni­verse. It plans to launch a hard X-ray mod­u­la­tion tele­scope to study the mat­ter dy­nam­ics and high-en­ergy ra­di­a­tion pro­cesses in the strong grav­i­ta­tional field of com­pact ce­les­tial bod­ies and black holes. Rel­e­vant re­sources will be brought into play for re­search into large-scale struc­ture and in­ter­ac­tion mod­els of so­lar wind and the mag­ne­to­sphere, and re­sponse to mag­ne­to­spheric sub­storm change process. (2) Sci­en­tific ex­per­i­ments in space The Shi­jian-10 re­cov­er­able satel­lite, Chang’e probes, Shen­zhou space­craft, Tian­gong-2 space lab­o­ra­tory and Tianzhou-1 cargo space­craft are to be used to im­ple­ment sci­en­tific ex­per­i­ments and re­search in bi­ol­ogy, life sciences, medicine and ma­te­ri­als in the space en­vi­ron­ment. (3) Quan­tum ex­per­i­ments in space Quan­tum ex­per­i­ment satel­lites are to be used to con­duct ex­per­i­ments and re­search in the fields of quan­tum key trans­mis­sion, quan­tum en­tan­gle­ment dis­tri­bu­tion, and quan­tum tele­por­ta­tion. (4) Ba­sic and ap­plied re­search China will carry out ba­sic re­search into sun-earth space en­vi­ron­ment, space cli­mate, and so­lar ac­tiv­ity and its im­pact on space cli­mate, and im­ple­ment spac­ere­lated in­ter­dis­ci­plinary re­search as well. Com­pre­hen­sive tech­niques will be de­vel­oped for an­a­lyz­ing data from space ob­ser­va­tions on the prop­er­ties of X-rays, the en­ergy spec­trum and spa­tial dis­tri­bu­tion of high-en­ergy elec­trons and high-en­ergy gamma rays, space physics, ex­trater­res­trial ce­les­tial bod­ies, and the earth’s elec­tro­mag­netic field and iono­sphere, to pro­mote the ap­pli­ca­tion of space re­search find­ings.

10. Space en­vi­ron­ment

China will im­prove the stan­dard­iza­tion sys­tem for space de­bris, near-earth ob­jects and space cli­mate. It will en­hance the space de­bris ba­sic data­base and data-shar­ing model, and ad­vance the de­vel­op­ment of space de­bris mon­i­tor­ing fa­cil­i­ties, the early warn­ing and emer­gency re­sponse plat­form and the on­line ser­vice sys­tem, through re­in­forc­ing in­te­grated uti­liza­tion of re­sources. The pro­tec­tion sys­tems of space­craft will be fur­ther strength­ened. Fur­ther­more, ef­forts will be made to im­prove the space en­vi­ron­ment mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem and to build a dis­as­ter early warn­ing and pre­dic­tion plat­form to raise our pre­ven­tive ca­pa­bil­ity. It will con­duct stud­ies on the build­ing of fa­cil­i­ties for mon­i­tor­ing near-earth ob­jects, and put the plan into op­er­a­tion to el­e­vate our ca­pa­bil­ity to mon­i­tor and cat­a­log such ob­jects.

IV. Poli­cies and Mea­sures for De­vel­op­ment

The Chi­nese gov­ern­ment has for­mu­lated poli­cies and mea­sures to sup­port the space in­dus­try and cre­ate fa­vor­able con­di­tions for its sus­tain­able, sound and rapid de­vel­op­ment.

The China Na­tional Space Ad­min­is­tra­tion is the gov­ern­ment agency in charge of China’s civil space ac­tiv­i­ties and in­ter­na­tional space co­op­er­a­tion, and per­forms cor­re­spond­ing func­tions of ad­min­is­tra­tion.

1. Space ac­tiv­i­ties ra­tio­nally ar­ranged

Pri­or­ity is given to the con­struc­tion and ap­pli­ca­tion of space in­fra­struc­ture, along­side sup­port for space ex­plo­ration and space sci­ence re­search, in China’s on­go­ing ef­forts to ex­pand its ca­pac­ity to en­ter and uti­lize space and en­hance guar­an­tee for space se­cu­rity.

2. Space in­no­va­tion greatly en­hanced

A num­ber of ma­jor projects and sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal pro­grams have been im­ple­mented to pro­mote sig­nif­i­cant progress of space sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy, and en­hance the over­all level of China’s sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy.

The roles of var­i­ous play­ers are clearly de­fined in the for­ma­tion of a frame­work of in­no­va­tion fea­tur­ing the co­or­di­nated ef­forts of the gov­ern­ment, en­ter­prises, uni­ver­si­ties, re­search in­sti­tu­tions and con­sumers, and the cre­ation of tech­ni­cal and in­dus­trial in­no­va­tion part­ner­ships, so as to shape a chain of in­no­va­tion to match the over­all in­dus­trial chain.

Ef­forts are be­ing made to build a space re­search base and plan in ad­vance strate­gic, fun­da­men­tal and for­ward-look­ing re­search projects to tackle key tech­ni­cal prob­lems, so as to sub­stan­tially in­crease China’s ca­pac­ity for orig­i­nal in­no­va­tion and cre­ate a state-of-art plat­form in this field.

The cus­tomiza­tion de­vel­op­ment of space tech­nolo­gies has been en­hanced to put re­search find­ings into in­dus­trial pro­duc­tion and lead na­tional eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment.

3. Space in­dus­try ca­pac­ity trans­formed and up­graded

Ef­forts are con­stantly be­ing made to build an in­te­grated and open sys­tem com­pris­ing sys­tem in­te­gra­tors, spe­cial­ized con­trac­tors, mar­ket sup­pli­ers and pub­lic ser­vice providers, based on the na­tional econ­omy and cov­er­ing all links from sci­en­tific re­search to pro­duc­tion.

A project to re­in­force space sci­ence in­fra­struc­ture has got off the ground with the goal of re­mov­ing the ba­sic bot­tle­necks and ob­sta­cles con­cern­ing key ma­te­ri­als, core spare parts and ad­vanced tech­nol­ogy, and im­prov­ing such sys­tems as stan­dards and mea­sure­ments.

In­for­ma­tion tech­nol­ogy has been fur­ther ap­plied to make space in­dus­try ca­pac­ity more dig­i­tal­ized, in­ter­net­based and ar­ti­fi­cial in­tel­li­gence-based.

4. Satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tion in­dus­try ac­cel­er­ated

In­dus­trial poli­cies re­lated to satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tion, and na­tional stan­dards and qual­ity sys­tems have been im­proved. Sup­port­ive mech­a­nisms for satel­lite data shar­ing have been es­tab­lished and im­proved, and plat­forms for shar­ing satel­lite data and re­sources up­graded to cre­ate a sat­is­fac­tory en­vi­ron­ment for the satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tion in­dus­try and boost the over­all per­for­mance of satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tion.

In­dus­trial clus­ters and mar­kets for satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tion are be­ing cul­ti­vated to im­prove the in­dus­trial chain. De­vel­op­ment for in­te­gra­tion ap­pli­ca­tion of satel­lite tech­nolo­gies is be­ing en­cour­aged to pro­mote the in­te­grated de­vel­op­ment of satel­lite ap­pli­ca­tion with the in­ter­net, big data, in­ter­net of things and other emerg­ing in­dus­tries, so as to cre­ate new prod­ucts, new tech­nolo­gies, new modes of busi­ness and new points of growth, and give im­pe­tus to the mass en­trepreneur­ship and in­no­va­tion.

5. Rel­e­vant leg­isla­tive work strength­ened

Ef­forts have been made to ac­cel­er­ate the for­ma­tion of a le­gal sys­tem cen­ter­ing on the leg­is­la­tion of a na­tional law to govern the space in­dus­try, in­clud­ing study­ing and for­mu­lat­ing reg­u­la­tions on space data and their ap­pli­ca­tion man­age­ment, the man­age­ment of the ex­port of as­tro­nau­ti­cal prod­ucts and tech­nolo­gies. The reg­u­la­tions in force on per­mits for space launch projects, regis­tra­tion of space-re­lated items, and per­mits for sci­en­tific and tech­no­log­i­cal re­search and pro­duc­tion have been im­proved to guide and reg­u­late var­i­ous space-re­lated ac­tiv­i­ties in ac­cor­dance with the law, which pro­vides le­gal guar­an­tee for build­ing China’s space in­dus­try.

China has un­der­taken stud­ies of in­ter­na­tional space law, and ac­tively par­tic­i­pated in the for­mu­la­tion of in­ter­na­tional rules re­gard­ing outer space.

6. Sys­tem of di­verse fund­ing im­proved

The scope of gov­ern­ment in­vest­ment is be­ing clearly spec­i­fied, the way in which such in­vest­ment is ar­ranged is op­ti­mized and in­vest­ment man­age­ment is reg­u­lated, and sus­tain­able and steady gov­ern­ment fi­nan­cial sup­port for space ac­tiv­i­ties is guar­an­teed.

The mech­a­nism for mar­ket ac­cess and with­drawal has been im­proved. A list of in­vest­ment projects in the space in­dus­try has been in­tro­duced for bet­ter man­age­ment in this re­gard. Non­govern­men­tal cap­i­tal and other so­cial sec­tors are en­cour­aged to par­tic­i­pate in space-re­lated ac­tiv­i­ties, in­clud­ing sci­en­tific re­search and pro­duc­tion, space in­fra­struc­ture, space in­for­ma­tion prod­ucts and ser­vices, and use of satel­lites to in­crease the level of com­mer­cial­iza­tion of the space in­dus­try.

The gov­ern­ment has in­creased its co­op­er­a­tion with pri­vate in­vestors, and the mech­a­nism for gov­ern­ment pro­cure­ment of as­tro­nau­ti­cal prod­ucts and ser­vices has been im­proved.

7. Train­ing of pro­fes­sion­als for the space in­dus­try strength­ened

The mech­a­nisms re­lated to the train­ing, as­sess­ment, flow of and in­cen­tives for pro­fes­sional per­son­nel are be­ing im­proved in an ef­fort to form a well-struc­tured con­tin­gent of highly qual­i­fied per­son­nel in the course of con­struc­tion of im­por­tant projects and ma­jor pro­grams, which con­sists of strate­gic sci­en­tists, lead­ing re­searchers and tech­ni­cians, en­trepreneurs and high-cal­iber pro­fes­sion­als, as well as ex­perts in in­ter­na­tional co­op­er­a­tion.

8. Knowl­edge about space sci­ence dis­sem­i­nated

Events have been or­ga­nized around “China Space Day”, “World Space Week” and “Sci­ence and Tech- nol­ogy Week” to dis­sem­i­nate knowl­edge and cul­ture about space, pro­mote the “Spirit of the Manned Space Pro­gram”, in­spire the na­tion, es­pe­cially its young peo­ple, to de­velop an in­ter­est in sci­ence, ex­plore the un­known and make in­no­va­tions, and at­tract more peo­ple into China’s space in­dus­try.

V. In­ter­na­tional Ex­changes and Co­op­er­a­tion

The Chi­nese gov­ern­ment holds that all coun­tries in the world have equal rights to peace­fully ex­plore, de­velop and uti­lize outer space and its ce­les­tial bod­ies, and that all coun­tries’ outer space ac­tiv­i­ties should be ben­e­fi­cial to their eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment and so­cial progress, and to the peace, se­cu­rity, sur­vival and de­vel­op­ment of mankind.

In­ter­na­tional space co­op­er­a­tion should ad­here to the fun­da­men­tal prin­ci­ples stated in the Treaty on Prin­ci­ples Gov­ern­ing the Ac­tiv­i­ties of States in the Ex­plo­ration and Use of Outer Space, In­clud­ing the moon and Other Ce­les­tial Bod­ies, and the Dec­la­ra­tion on In­ter­na­tional Co­op­er­a­tion in the Ex­plo­ration and Use of Outer Space for the Ben­e­fit and in the In­ter­ests of All States, Tak­ing into Par­tic­u­lar Ac­count the Needs of De­vel­op­ing Coun­tries. China main­tains that in­ter­na­tional ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion should be strength­ened on the ba­sis of equal­ity and mu­tual ben­e­fit, peace­ful uti­liza­tion and inclusive de­vel­op­ment.

1. Fun­da­men­tal poli­cies

The Chi­nese gov­ern­ment has adopted the fol­low­ing fun­da­men­tal poli­cies with re­gard to in­ter­na­tional space ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion: the peace­ful use of outer space within the frame­work of the United Na­tions; and non­govern­men­tal space or­ga­ni­za­tions’ ac­tiv­i­ties that pro­mote de­vel­op­ment of the space in­dus­try; lat­eral co­op­er­a­tion which is based on com­mon goals and serves the Belt and Road Ini­tia­tive; Co­op­er­a­tion Or­ga­ni­za­tion to play an im­por­tant role in re­gional space co­op­er­a­tion, and at­tach­ing im­por­tance to space co­op­er­a­tion un­der the BRICS co­op­er­a­tion mech­a­nism and within the frame­work of the Shang­hai Co­op­er­a­tion Or­ga­ni­za­tion; ef­forts of do­mes­tic sci­en­tific re­search in­sti­tutes, in­dus­trial en­ter­prises, in­sti­tu­tions of higher learn­ing and so­cial or­ga­ni­za­tions to de­velop in­ter­na­tional space ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion in di­verse forms and at var­i­ous lev­els un­der the guid­ance of rel­e­vant state poli­cies, laws and reg­u­la­tions.

2. Ma­jor events

Since 2011 China has signed 43 space co­op­er­a­tion agree­ments or mem­o­ran­dums of un­der­stand­ing with 29 coun­tries, space agen­cies and in­ter­na­tional or­ga­ni­za­tions. It has taken part in rel­e­vant ac­tiv­i­ties spon­sored by the United Na­tions and other rel­e­vant in­ter­na­tional or­ga­ni­za­tions, and sup­ported in­ter­na­tional com­mer­cial co­op­er­a­tion in space. These mea­sures have yielded fruit­ful re­sults.

(1) Bi­lat­eral co­op­er­a­tion line of China-Rus­sia Space Co­op­er­a­tion from 2013 to 2017 through the mech­a­nism of the Space Co­op­er­a­tion Sub­com­mit­tee dur­ing the Prime Min­is­ters’ Meet­ing be­tween Rus­sia and China. The two coun­tries have ac­tively pro­moted co­op­er­a­tion in deep space ex­plo­ration, manned space­flight, earth ob­ser­va­tion, satel­lite nav­i­ga­tion, spac­ere­lated elec­tronic parts and com­po­nents, and other ar­eas. Agency signed the Out­line of Chi­naESA Space Co­op­er­a­tion from 2015 to 2020 within the mech­a­nism of the China-Europe Joint Com­mis­sion on Space Co­op­er­a­tion. The two sides have de­clared their de­ter­mi­na­tion to co­op­er­ate in deep space ex­plo­ration, space sci­ence, earth ob­ser­va­tion, TT&C ser­vices, space de­bris, and space-re­lated ed­u­ca­tion and train­ing, and launched the panoramic imag­ing satel­lite for so­lar wind and mag­ne­to­sphere in­ter­ac­tion. The two sides have com­pleted co­op­er­a­tion on the Dragon 3 co­op­er­a­tion pro­gram. mech­a­nism of the Space Co­op­er­a­tion Sub­com­mit­tee of the Sino-Brazil­ian High-level Co­or­di­na­tion Com­mis­sion, have con­ducted con­stant co­op­er­a­tion in the China-Brazil Earth Re­sources Satel­lite pro­gram. They suc­cess­fully launched CBERS-4, signed the Sup­ple­men­tary Agree­ment of China and Brazil on the Joint De­vel­op­ment of CBERS-04A and Co­op­er­a­tion Agree­ment of China and Brazil on Re­moteSens­ing Satel­lite Data and Ap­pli­ca­tion, main­tain­ing CBERS data con­sis­tency. The two coun­tries also up­dated CBERS data re­ceiv­ing sta­tions in South Africa and Sin­ga­pore, ex­pand­ing CBERS data ap­pli­ca­tion re­gion­ally and glob­ally. They have worked to­gether to set up the China-Brazil Joint Lab­o­ra­tory for Space Weather. mech­a­nism of the Sino-French Joint Com­mis­sion on Space Co­op­er­a­tion, have en­gaged in bi­lat­eral co­op­er­a­tion on as­tro­nomic, ocean and other satel­lite pro­grams. The two coun­tries have signed a let­ter of in­tent on space and cli­mate change, and worked to pro­mote the ap­pli­ca­tion of space tech­nol­ogy in global cli­mate change gover­nance. Ital­ian Joint Com­mis­sion on Space Co­op­er­a­tion, and have steadily car­ried for­ward re­search and de­vel­op­ment of the China-Italy Elec­tro­mag­netic Mon­i­tor­ing Ex­per­i­ment Satel­lite Pro­gram. have pro­moted con­struc­tion of a joint lab­o­ra­tory on space sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy, up­graded their ex­changes in space sci­ence and tech­nol­ogy per­son­nel, and launched co­op­er­a­tive stud­ies on re­mote-sens­ing ap­pli­ca­tions. ed di­a­logue be­tween their space in­dus­try en­ter­prises, and strength­ened co­op­er­a­tion in high-end space man­u­fac­tur­ing. a mem­o­ran­dum of un­der­stand­ing on space co­op­er­a­tion, pro­mot­ing co­op­er­a­tion in re­mote-sens­ing ap­pli­ca­tions in agri­cul­ture, water re­sources and at­mo­spheric en­vi­ron­ment, and stat­ing that Chang’e-4 would carry a Dutch pay­load in its mis­sion. in the frame­work of the China-US Strate­gic and Eco­nomic Di­a­logue, car­ried out a civil space di­a­logue, stat­ing that the two coun­tries would strengthen co­op­er­a­tion in space de­bris, space weather, re­sponse to global cli­mate change, and re­lated ar­eas. agree­ments and es­tab­lished bi­lat­eral space co­op­er­a­tion mech­a­nisms with Al­ge­ria, Ar­gentina, Bel­gium, In­dia, ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion in such ar­eas as space tech­nol­ogy, space ap­pli­ca­tions, and space sci­ence, ed­u­ca­tion and train­ing.

(2) Mul­ti­lat­eral co­op­er­a­tion ties or­ga­nized by the United Na­tions Com­mit­tee on the Peace­ful Uses of Outer Space and its Sci­en­tific and Tech­ni­cal Sub­com­mit­tee and Le­gal Sub­com­mit­tee, and ne­go­ti­a­tions on in­ter­na­tional space rules such as the long-term sus­tain­abil­ity of outer space ac­tiv­i­ties. It signed the Mem­o­ran­dum of Un­der­stand­ing be­tween the China Na­tional Space Ad­min­is­tra­tion and the United Na­tions on Earth Ob­ser­va­tion Data and Tech­ni­cal Sup­port, ac­tively pro­mot­ing data shar­ing and co­op­er­a­tion be­tween China’s earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lites on the UN plat­form. the Bei­jing of­fice of the United Na­tions Plat­form for Space-based In­for­ma­tion for Dis­as­ter Man­age­ment and Emer­gency Re­sponse. The UN set up the Re­gional Cen­ter for Space Sci­ence and Tech­nol­ogy Ed­u­ca­tion in Asia and the Pa­cific (China) in Bei­jing to pro­mote per­son­nel train­ing in the in­ter­na­tional space arena. Pa­cific Space Co­op­er­a­tion Or­ga­ni­za­tion, China ac­tively par­tic­i­pated in the APSCO Joint Small Multi-mis­sion Satel­lite Con­stel­la­tion Pro­gram. It also or­ga­nized the APSCO De­vel­op­ment Strat­egy Fo­rum with the theme of “the Belt and Road Ini­tia­tive for Fa­cil­i­tat­ing Re­gional Ca­pac­ity Build­ing of the Asia-Pa­cific Coun­tries,” at which the Bei­jing Dec­la­ra­tion was adopted. Brazil, Rus­sia, In­dia, and South Africa co-spon­sored and ac­tively pro­moted co­op­er­a­tion in the BRICS re­mote-sens­ing satel­lite con­stel­la­tion. Satel­lite In­for­ma­tion Mar­itime Ap­pli­ca­tion Cen­ter, and Lan­cang-Mekong River Spa­tial In­for­ma­tion Ex­change Cen­ter. ties or­ga­nized by the In­ter-Agency Space De­bris Co­or­di­na­tion Com­mit­tee, In­ter­na­tional Char­ter on Space and Ma­jor Dis­as­ters, Group on Earth Ob­ser­va­tions, and other in­ter­gov­ern­men­tal or­ga­ni­za­tions. It hosted the 31st Coun­cil of the In­ter­na­tional Char­ter on Space and Ma­jor Dis­as­ters, the 32nd Meet­ing of the IADC and other in­ter­na­tional con­fer­ences. ties or­ga­nized by the In­ter­na­tional Com­mit­tee on Global Nav­i­ga­tion Satel­lite Sys­tems, or ICG, and held the Sev­enth ICG Con­fer­ence. It ac­tively im­proved the com­pat­i­bil­ity and in­ter­op­er­abil­ity of the Bei­dou sys­tem with other satel­lite nav­i­ga­tion sys­tems, pop­u­lar­ized satel­lite nav­i­ga­tion tech­nol­ogy, and co­op­er­ated with a num­ber of coun­tries and re­gions in satel­lite nav­i­ga­tion ap­pli­ca­tions. ities or­ga­nized by the In­ter­na­tional As­tro­nau­ti­cal Fed­er­a­tion, In­ter­na­tional Com­mit­tee on Space Re­search, In­ter­na­tional Acad­emy of Astro­nau­tics, In­ter­na­tional In­sti­tute of Space Law, and other non­govern­men­tal in­ter­na­tional space or­ga­ni­za­tions and aca­demic in­sti­tutes. It held the 64th In­ter­na­tional As­tro­nau­ti­cal Congress, 2014 United Na­tions / China / APSCO Work­shop on Space Law, 36th In­ter­na­tional Con­fer­ence on Earth Sci­ence and Re­mote-Sens­ing, and re­lated in­ter­na­tional con­fer­ences. It also held the First Sem­i­nar on Manned Space­flight Tech­nol­ogy within the frame­work of the United Na­tions Pro­gram on Space Ap­pli­ca­tions. in­ter­na­tional co­or­di­na­tion of global dis­as­ter pre­ven­tion and re­duc­tion, and pro­vided satel­lite data sup­port and tech­ni­cal ser­vices for ma­jor in­ter­na­tional dis­as­ter-re­lief ef­forts through the United Na­tions Plat­form for Space­based In­for­ma­tion on Dis­as­ter Man­age­ment and Emer­gency Re­sponse, United Na­tions Eco­nomic and So­cial Com­mis­sion for Asia and the Pa­cific, In­ter­na­tional Char­ter on Space and Ma­jor Dis­as­ters, and re­lated mech­a­nisms. (3) Com­mer­cial ac­tiv­i­ties China en­cour­ages and sup­ports Chi­nese en­ter­prises to par­tic­i­pate in in­ter­na­tional com­mer­cial ac­tiv­i­ties in the space field. It has ex­ported satel­lites and made in-or­bit de­liv­ery of Nige­ria’s com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lite, Venezuela’s re­mote-sens­ing satel­lite-1, Bo­livia’s com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lite, Laos’ com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lite-1 and Be­larus’ com­mu­ni­ca­tions satel­lite-1. In ad­di­tion, it pro­vided com­mer­cial launch ser­vice for Turkey’s Gok­turk-2 earth ob­ser­va­tion satel­lite, and when launch­ing its own satel­lites took on small satel­lites for Ecuador, Ar­gentina, Poland, Lux­em­bourg and other coun­tries. It has also pro­vided busi­ness ser­vices con­cern­ing space in­for­ma­tion.

3. Key ar­eas for fu­ture co­op­er­a­tion

Con­clu­sion

In the next five years China will, with a more ac­tive and open at­ti­tude, con­duct ex­ten­sive in­ter­na­tional ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion con­cern­ing space in the fol­low­ing key ar­eas: Ini­tia­tive Space In­for­ma­tion Cor­ri­dor, in­clud­ing earth ob­ser­va­tion, com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing, nav­i­ga­tion and po­si­tion­ing, and other types of satel­lite-re­lated de­vel­op­ment; ground and ap­pli­ca­tion sys­tem con­struc­tion; and ap­pli­ca­tion prod­uct de­vel­op­ment. sens­ing satel­lite con­stel­la­tion. Small Multi-mis­sion Satel­lite Con­stel­la­tion Pro­gram and Univer­sity Small Satel­lite Project De­vel­op­ment. space ex­plo­ration pro­grams and tech­ni­cal co­op­er­a­tion. and a space sta­tion in China’s manned space­flight pro­gram. space sci­ence satel­lite, a re­mote-sens­ing satel­lite, pay­loads, etc. struc­ture such as data re­ceiv­ing sta­tions and com­mu­ni­ca­tions gate­way sta­tions. earth ob­ser­va­tion, com­mu­ni­ca­tions and broad­cast­ing, nav­i­ga­tion and po­si­tion­ing. sci­ence. warn­ing, mit­i­ga­tion and pro­tec­tion. cal co­op­er­a­tion in the field of whole satel­lites, sub­sys­tems, spare parts and elec­tronic com­po­nents of satel­lites and launch ve­hi­cles, ground fa­cil­i­ties and equip­ment, and re­lated items. stan­dards. in the space field.

In the present-day world, more and more coun­tries are at­tach­ing im­por­tance to and tak­ing an ac­tive part in de­vel­op­ing space ac­tiv­i­ties. More­over, space tech­nol­ogy is be­ing widely ap­plied in all as­pects of our daily life, ex­ert­ing a ma­jor and far-reach­ing in­flu­ence on so­cial pro­duc­tion and life­style.

It is mankind’s un­remit­ting pur­suit to peace­fully ex­plore and uti­lize outer space. Stand­ing at a new his­tor­i­cal start­ing line, China is de­ter­mined to quicken the pace of de­vel­op­ing its space in­dus­try, and ac­tively carry out in­ter­na­tional space ex­changes and co­op­er­a­tion, so that achieve­ments in space ac­tiv­i­ties will serve and im­prove the well-be­ing of mankind in a wider scope, at a deeper level and with higher stan­dards. China will pro­mote the lofty cause of peace and de­vel­op­ment to­gether with other coun­tries.

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