De­vel­op­ment of China’s trans­port net­work

China Daily (Hong Kong) - - DOCUMENT - 4. Re­form and Rule of Law 1. Pro­mot­ing Eco­nomic and So­cial De­vel­op­ment 2. Serv­ing the Peo­ple and Im­prov­ing Their Liv­ing Stan­dards 3. En­hanc­ing Progress Eco­log­i­cal 1. In­ter­na­tional Pas­sen­ger and Freight Trans­port 2. In­ter­na­tional Ex­changes and Co­op­er­a­tion

The State Coun­cil In­for­ma­tion Of­fice pub­lished a white pa­per on Thurs­day on the de­vel­op­ment of China’s Trans­port. Fol­low­ing is the full text:

Con­tents: Pre­am­ble I. Course of De­vel­op­ment II. Com­pre­hen­sive Trans­port Sys­tem III. Play­ing a Ba­sic, Pi­o­neer­ing and Serv­ing Role IV. Open­ing up and In­ter­na­tional Co­op­er­a­tion V. De­vel­op­ment Goals for the Next Five Years Con­clu­sion

Pre­am­ble

Since the found­ing of the Peo­ple’s Repub­lic of China in 1949, and es­pe­cially since the in­tro­duc­tion of the re­form and open­ing-up pol­icy in 1978, China’s trans­port has un­der­gone historic changes, mak­ing sig­nif­i­cant con­tri­bu­tions to the coun­try’s so­cial and eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment, and the peo­ple’s safe and con­ve­nient travel.

Since the start of the 21st cen­tury, the Chi­nese govern­ment has fur­thered the re­form in trans­port, built a mod­ern­ized com­pre­hen­sive trans­port sys­tem, im­proved the man­age­ment sys­tem, and mod­ern­ized man­age­ment ca­pac­ity in trans­port, bring­ing China’s trans­port to a new stage that in­cor­po­rates mul­ti­ple modes of trans­port and pro­motes their co­or­di­nated de­vel­op­ment.

China in­tends to com­plete the build­ing of a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in all re­spects by 2020, which is the first of its Two Cen­te­nary Goals. For this end, trans­port should quicken its pace of de­vel­op­ment, and fully play its ba­sic, pi­o­neer­ing and serv­ing role as a van­guard and solid guar­an­tee for com­plet­ing the build­ing of a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in all re­spects.

I. Course of De­vel­op­ment

When the PRC was founded in 1949, trans­port was underdeveloped. To­tal rail­way length was only 21,800 km, half of which was par­a­lyzed. High­way traf­fic length was only 80,800 km, and civil au­to­mo­biles num­bered only 51,000. In­land wa­ter­ways were un­de­vel­oped, and only 12 civil air routes were op­er­a­tive. Postal out­lets were lim­ited. The ma­jor means of trans­port were an­i­mal-drawn ve­hi­cles and prim­i­tive boats.

Fol­low­ing the found­ing of the PRC, the Chi­nese govern­ment de­cided to cre­ate the ba­sic con­di­tions to re­store trans­port. Dur­ing the eco­nomic re­cov­ery pe­riod (1949-52), dam­aged trans­port fa­cil­i­ties were re­paired, and wa­ter, land and air trans­port were re­sumed. In 1953, China be­gan to de­velop trans­port in a planned way. Dur­ing the First (1953-57) and Sec­ond (1958-62) Five-Year Plan pe­ri­ods and the eco­nomic ad­just­ment pe­riod (1961-65), China tilted state in­vest­ment in sup­port of trans­port. It ren­o­vated and built a num­ber of rail­ways, high­ways, ports and piers, and civil air­ports; ex­panded the trans­port in­fra­struc­ture cov­er­age in the west­ern and re­mote re­gions; dredged ma­jor nav­i­ga­tion chan­nels; opened new in­ter­na­tional and do­mes­tic sea and air routes; ex­panded the postal net­work; and in­creased the amount of trans­port equip­ment.

Dur­ing the "cul­tural revolution" (1966-76), trans­port was se­ri­ously dis­turbed, but fa­cil­i­ties, equip­ment and routes kept in­creas­ing; in view of the se­vere de­lays in un­load­ing and trans­ship­ment, and over­stock­ing at ma­jor coastal ports, port in­fra­struc­ture con­struc­tion was ac­cel­er­ated; and pipe­line trans­port de­vel­oped.

The re­form and open­ing-up pol­icy adopted in 1978 ush­ered in a new stage of so­cial and eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment, bring­ing about the rapid de­vel­op­ment of trans­port. The Chi­nese govern­ment pri­or­i­tized trans­port de­vel­op­ment, in­creased per­ti­nent pol­icy sup­port, made pi­o­neer­ing at­tempts to open wider the trans­port mar­ket and es­tab­lish so­cial fi­nanc­ing mech­a­nisms, and re­versed the ad­verse sit­u­a­tion that trans­port was un­able to match so­cial and eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment.

China im­ple­mented the con­tract re­spon­si­bil­ity sys­tem in rail­way op­er­a­tion; is­sued three poli­cies for sup­port­ing high­way de­vel­op­ment, namely, rais­ing high­way main­te­nance fee levied on high­way users, col­lect­ing ve­hi­cle pur­chase tax, and build­ing high­ways with loans and re­pay­ing the loans with tolls. High­way con­struc­tion and wa­ter trans­port en­gi­neer­ing projects started to adopt public bid­ding. Ports were the first to be opened up to the out­side world, and sea trans­port was the first sec­tor to go global. Civil avi­a­tion be­gan to op­er­ate as an en­ter­prise, and an air trans­port mar­ket took shape. The postal ser­vices man­age­ment sys­tem was reformed, Ex­press Mail Ser­vice was set up, and postal sav­ings ser­vices were re­sumed. In­vest­ment in trans­port de­vel­op­ment was in­creased and non­govern­ment cap­i­tal was at­tracted to go into trans­port in­fra­struc­ture con­struc­tion. In 1988 the Shang­hai-Jiad­ing Ex­press­way was opened to traf­fic, the first ex­press­way on China’s main­land.

In 1992, China set the re­form goal of es­tab­lish­ing a so­cial­ist mar­ket eco­nomic sys­tem. Re­form and open­ing-up ef­forts were fur­thered in trans­port while the de­vel­op­ment of var­i­ous modes of trans­port achieved break­through progress. Since 1997, it has raised its av­er­age rail­way speed six times as a re­sult of large-scale con­struc­tion. A plan was made to build a trans­port frame­work where high­ways, wa­ter­ways and ports play the ma­jor role, and put in place an ad­vanced trans­port sup­port sys­tem. A goal was set to ac­cel­er­ate re­lated con­struc­tion. China be­gan to col­lect civil air­port con­struc­tion fees, and set up a civil air­port in­fra­struc­ture con­struc­tion fund, a rail­way con­struc­tion fund and an in­land wa­ter trans­port con­struc­tion fund in suc­ces­sion. To ad­dress the fi­nan­cial cri­sis start­ing in South­east Asia, China im­ple­mented proac­tive fis­cal poli­cies to speed up in­vest­ment in high­way con­struc­tion, which spurred the emer­gence of large-scale ex­press­way con­struc­tion. Around that time, the coun­try im­ple­mented the strat­egy of devel­op­ing the west­ern re­gions, and en­hanced the con­struc­tion of rail­ways, high­ways, air­ports and ma­jor gas pipe­lines there. It set the goal of “build­ing as­phalt and ce­ment roads in ru­ral ar­eas to fa­cil­i­tate ur­ban­iza­tion”, bring­ing a new up­surge of ru­ral road con­struc­tion. China fur­thered the re­form of the port man­age­ment sys­tem and ac­cel­er­ated the con­struc­tion of ports. It sep­a­rated postal ser­vices and telecom­mu­ni­ca­tions ser­vices, and govern­ment func­tions and en­ter­prise op­er­a­tion in postal ser­vices, pro­mot­ing mod­ern postal ser­vices in­te­grat­ing in­for­ma­tion flow, cap­i­tal flow and lo­gis­tics.

The Chi­nese govern­ment is­sued the Medium-Term and Long-Term Rail­way Net­work Plan, Na­tional Ex­press­ways Net­work Plan and re­lated pro­grams, while vig­or­ously im­prov­ing ba­sic trans­port public ser­vice ca­pac­ity, ur­ban and ru­ral pas­sen­ger trans­port, ur­ban public trans­port and trans­port safety emer­gency res­cue. In 2008, China’s Min­istry of Trans­port was es­tab­lished, and ef­forts were made to put all man­age­ment of trans­port by air, wa­ter and land, as well as postal ser­vices un­der the min­istry. The same year, the Bei­jing-Tian­jin In­ter­city Rail­way was opened to traf­fic, mark­ing the start of China’s high-speed rail era.

Since the 18th CPC Na­tional Con­gress in 2012, the con­struc­tion of a mod­ern­ized com­pre­hen­sive trans­port sys­tem has been ac­cel­er­ated. In 2013, rail­way sec­tor re­al­ized sep­a­ra­tion of govern­ment func­tions from com­mer­cial op­er­a­tions, and the in­sti­tu­tional re­form to es­tab­lish an ef­fi­cient govern­ment depart­ment to ex­er­cise uni­fied man­age­ment of trans­port by air, wa­ter and land, as well as postal ser­vices was ba­si­cally com­pleted. The trans­port sec­tor has pushed re­form to a higher level by en­hanc­ing law-based man­age­ment, pro­mot­ing com­pre­hen­sive, smart, green and safe trans­port, and for­mu­lat­ing de­vel­op­ment plans to serve the Three Ini­tia­tives — the Belt and Road Ini­tia­tive, the Bei­jing-Tian­jin-He­bei in­te­gra­tion ini­tia­tive and the Yangtze River Eco­nomic Belt ini­tia­tive. China has ex­pe­dited the build­ing of a com­pre­hen­sive trans­port in­fra­struc­ture net­work, and re­in­forced the con­nec­tiv­ity of mul­ti­ple modes of trans­port, ad­vanc­ing mod­ern lo­gis­tics in this sec­tor and se­cur­ing com­pre­hen­sive trans­port ser­vices. It has en­hanced the sup­ply and man­age­ment of ba­sic public ser­vices for trans­port, sup­port­ing the de­vel­op­ment of trans­port in­fra­struc­ture in con­tigu­ous im­pov­er­ished ar­eas, ur­ban and ru­ral pas­sen­ger trans­port and ur­ban public trans­port. China has also pro­moted bal­anced de­vel­op­ment of trans­port in its eastern, cen­tral, west­ern and north­east­ern re­gions. In this re­gard, west­ern China has quick­ened its pace in devel­op­ing high-speed rail­ways, and over­all cen­tral and west­ern China’ s trans­port con­di­tions have been greatly im­proved. In 2013, the Mo­tuo High­way in Ti­bet was opened to traf­fic, in­di­cat­ing that ev­ery county in China now had ac­cess to high­ways.

Over the past 60-odd years China’s trans­port has un­der­gone the phases of bot­tle­neck, pre­lim­i­nary alle­vi­a­tion and ba­sic adap­ta­tion to so­cio-eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment de­mands. China has nar­rowed its gap with world-class trans­port, and sur­passed the lat­ter in sev­eral fields. A mod­ern­ized com­pre­hen­sive trans­port sys­tem is now emerg­ing on the hori­zon.

II. Com­pre­hen­sive Trans­port Sys­tem

Through years of re­form and de­vel­op­ment, China has formed a multi-nodal and full-cov­er­age trans­port net­work; opened up five ver­ti­cal and five hor­i­zon­tal trans­port trunk rail­way lines; put into op­er­a­tion a large num­ber of pas­sen­ger and freight trans­port sta­tions (lo­gis­tics parks); up­graded trans­port equip­ment and im­proved trans­port ser­vice ca­pac­ity; achieved ma­jor break­throughs in tech­nol­ogy in­no­va­tion and ap­pli­ca­tion; and im­proved the trans­port mar­ket sys­tem, man­age­ment mech­a­nisms and re­lated laws and reg­u­la­tions. 1. In­fra­struc­ture Net­work A mul­tilevel rail­way net­work has been formed. By the end of 2015, China’s to­tal rail­way op­er­a­tion length reached 121,000 km, rank­ing the world’s sec­ond, in­clud­ing 19,000-km high-speed rail­way, rank­ing the world’s first. An ex­press pas­sen­ger trans­port net­work with high-speed rail­way as frame­work and sup­ple­mented by in­ter­city rail­way has been built. The pro­por­tion of dou­ble-line rail­way in China was 53.5 per­cent, and the pro­por­tion of elec­tric rail­way 61.8 per­cent. China has formed east-west and north-south rail­way pas­sage­ways with great trans­port ca­pac­ity, im­proved lo­gis­tics in­fra­struc­ture, and re­al­ized non­stop, speedy, and heavy-haul freight trans­port.

A full-cov­er­age high­way net­work has been set up. By the end of 2015, China’ s to­tal high­way traf­fic length was 4.58 mil­lion kilo­me­ters. Ex­press­way length was 123,500 km, rank­ing first in the world. The na­tional and pro­vin­cial trunk high­way net­work has been im­proved, con­nect­ing ad­min­is­tra­tive re­gions at and above the county level na­tion­wide. Ru­ral high­way length was 3.98 mil­lion km, con­nect­ing 99.9 per­cent of towns and town­ships and 99.8 per­cent of ad­min­is­tra­tive vil­lages. The tech­nol­ogy struc­ture of the high­way net­work has been im­proved, with graded high­way length ac­count­ing for 88.4 per­cent of to­tal high­way length.

A wa­ter trans­port net­work con­nect­ing trunk and branch lines has been es­tab­lished. By the end of 2015, China had 31,300 quay berths for pro­duc­tion use, in­clud­ing 2,221 berths of 10,000-ton­class or above and 1,173 spe­cial­ized berths for coal, crude oil, metal ores and con­tain­ers, and im­proved large-scale, pro­fes­sional and auto- mated deep­wa­ter ports. In­land wa­ter­way nav­i­ga­ble length was 127,000 km, with graded wa­ter­ways ac­count­ing for 52.2 per­cent, and the length of high-grade wa­ter­ways reach­ing 13,600 km. China has im­proved the nav­i­ga­tion con­di­tions of the Yangtze and Xi­jiang rivers and the Bei­jingHangzhou Grand Canal, and formed an in­land wa­ter­way sys­tem com­posed of two hor­i­zon­tal trunk wa­ter­ways, one ver­ti­cal trunk wa­ter­way, two high-grade wa­ter­way net­works and 18 high­grade main­stream and trib­u­tary wa­ter­ways.

A civil air­port sys­tem has taken shape. By the end of 2015, China had 210 civil trans­port air­ports, form­ing a pat­tern with in­ter­na­tional hub air­ports in Bei­jing, Shang­hai and Guangzhou as cen­ters, with re­gional hub air­ports in pro­vin­cial cap­i­tals and ma­jor ci­ties as junc­tures, and some other sup­port trunk and branch air­ports. Air traf­fic con­trol fa­cil­i­ties have been im­proved, which se­cured 8.57 mil­lion take­offs and land­ings in 2015. Gen­eral avi­a­tion air­ports have been devel­op­ing quickly. Air­port rail and fast-track tran­sit have been rapidly im­proved, and the con­nec­tiv­ity be­tween air­ports and other modes of trans­port has been en­hanced.

Post of­fices for each town­ship and postal ser­vices for each vil­lage have been re­al­ized. By the end of 2015, China’s postal routes to­taled 25,000, with a to­tal length of 6.38 mil­lion km; postal out­lets to­taled 54,000, and vil­lage mail sta­tions to­taled 210,000. Ex­press de­liv­ery out­lets num­bered 183,000, with a to­tal net­work length of 23.71 mil­lion km.

Oil and gas pipe­lines have formed a trunk net­work. By the end of 2015, China’s on­shore oil and gas pipe­lines had a to­tal length of 112,000 km, cov­er­ing 31 prov­inces, mu­nic­i­pal­i­ties di­rectly un­der the cen­tral govern­ment and au­ton­o­mous re­gions, form­ing a trunk-pipe­line net­work for crude oil, re­fined oil and nat­u­ral gas as well as an oil and gas trans­mis­sion net­work which trans­ports oil from the west to the east and from the north to the south, trans­mits gas from the west to the east and from the north to the south, and brings gas from off­shore. 2. Trans­port Ser­vice Ca­pac­ity China’s trans­port vol­ume leads the world. In 2015 China’s pas­sen­ger trans­port vol­ume was 19.43 bil­lion per­sons, and pas­sen­ger turnover was 3.0 tril­lion pas­sen­gerkm (pkm); freight trans­port vol­ume was 41 bil­lion tons, and freight turnover was 17.37 tril­lion ton-km (tkm). In terms of rail­way trans­port, pas­sen­ger turnover and freight trans­port vol­ume ranked first in the world, and freight turnover ranked sec­ond. In terms of high­way trans­port, pas­sen­ger and freight trans­port vol­ume and pas­sen­ger and freight turnover ranked first in the world. In terms of wa­ter­way trans­port, freight trans­port vol­ume and freight turnover also ranked first in the world. In terms of civil avi­a­tion trans­port, to­tal turnover, pas­sen­ger turnover, and cargo and mail turnover all ranked sec­ond in the world. In terms of port trans­port, cargo through­put and con­tainer through­put ranked first in the world. In terms of postal ser­vices, the num­ber of cus­tomers ex­ceeded 70 bil­lion. In terms of ex­press de­liv­ery, busi­ness vol­ume ranked first in the world; on the Sin­gles’s Day, an­nual on­line shop­ping day on Nov 11, the num­ber of parcels de­liv­ered in one day reached the year’s peak of 160 mil­lion pieces. In terms of pipe­line trans­porta­tion, freight trans­port vol­ume was 710 mil­lion tons and freight turnover was 413.88 bil­lion tkm.

Trans­port ser­vice qual­ity has been im­proved. Mul­ti­modal trans­port, drop and pull trans­port and cold chain lo­gis­tics have de­vel­oped quickly; the use of stan­dard­ized trans­port units such as con­tain­ers and vans has been pro­moted; and ur­ban and ru­ral lo­gis­tics have en­hanced IT ap­pli­ca­tion and in­ten­si­fied ser­vices, thus in­creas­ing lo­gis­tics ef­fi­ciency. Trans­port safety has been greatly im­proved, and China’s rail­way pas­sen­ger trans­port safety leads the world. In 2015, the num­ber of death toll per 10,000 ve­hi­cle road ac­ci­dents dropped by 72.4 per­cent over 2005; the num­ber of ac­ci­dents of cargo ves­sels of a mil­lion-ton-class through­put and above has de­creased by five per­cent on av­er­age an­nu­ally since 2005; the rolling 10-year ac­ci­dent rate per one mil­lion flight hours in civil avi­a­tion trans­port was 0.018 in 2015 (the world’s av­er­age is 0.24). Eq­ui­table ba­sic public ser­vices in pas­sen­ger trans­port and the strat­egy of “public tran­sit pri­or­ity” have been pro­moted. The length of ex­clu­sive bus lanes has reached 8,569 km, and the length of Bus Rapid Tran­sit lines 3,081 km. In ad­di­tion, new and spe­cial­ized public trans­port ser­vices, such as cus­tom­ized shut­tle and night buses, have in­creased, and new models of trans­port ser­vice in­clud­ing on­line taxi book­ing have been devel­op­ing rapidly.

Trans­port ser­vice ac­ces­si­bil­ity has been ex­panded. High-speed rail­way cov­er­age of ci­ties with a pop­u­la­tion of over one mil­lion each has reached 65 per­cent, and the num­ber of pas­sen­ger trans­port routes has reached 181,000. The num­ber of ur­ban bus and trol­ley bus routes in op­er­a­tion has ex­ceeded 45,000, and the num­ber of ur­ban rail tran­sit routes in op­er­a­tion has reached 105, with a to­tal length of 3,195 km. In­ter­na­tional wa­ter­way trans­port routes and con­tainer ship­ment routes now con­nect over 1,000 ports in more than 100 coun­tries and re­gions. Sched­uled civil avi­a­tion flights op­er­ate on 3,326 routes, with a to­tal length of 7.87 mil­lion km, reach­ing 204 ci­ties in China’s main­land, the Hong Kong Spe­cial Ad­min­is­tra­tive Re­gion, Ma­cao SAR and Tai­wan, as well as 137 ci­ties in 55 for­eign coun­tries and re­gions. Ex­press de­liv­ery out­lets now serve 70 per­cent of towns and town­ships na­tion­wide.

Means of trans­port and tech­nol­ogy have been im­proved. By the end of 2015 all rail­way trunk lines had re­al­ized diesel and elec­tric lo­co­mo­tive trac­tion; types and struc­tures of pas­sen­ger and freight trans­port ve­hi­cles had been up­graded and up­dated. Civil au­to­mo­biles num­bered 172.28 mil­lion; high­way pas­sen­ger and freight trans­port ve­hi­cles in op­er­a­tion to­taled 14.73 mil­lion; the av­er­age ton­nage of freight trans­port ve­hi­cles in­creased from 6.3 to 7.5 tons; the pro­por­tion of spe­cial-use freight ve­hi­cles (in­clud­ing trail­ers) rose from 5.1 per­cent to 27.2 per­cent; pas­sen­ger trans­port ve­hi­cles in op­er­a­tion have be­come ad­vanced and com­fort­able, while freight trans­port ve­hi­cles have be­come larger and have been spec­i­fied for var­i­ous uses. Wa­ter trans­port ves­sels num­bered 166,000; ocean cargo fleet had a to­tal ca­pac­ity of 160 mil­lion tons; in­land wa­ter­way freight trans­port ves­sels had an av­er­age ton­nage of more than 800 tons; the rate of stan­dard ship types op­er­at­ing in nav­i­ga­ble wa­ters of high-grade wa­ter­ways reached 50 per­cent; trans­port ves­sels have been de­vel­oped to­ward large-size, spe­cial­ized-use and stan­dard types. Civil avi­a­tion had 2,650 reg­is­tered planes, while gen­eral avi­a­tion had 1,904. Postal ser­vices had 244,000 trans­port ve­hi­cles and 71 cargo planes for do­mes­tic ex­press de­liv­ery.

An ef­fi­cient safety reg­u­la­tion and mar­itime emer­gency aid sys­tem has been es­tab­lished. China has es­tab­lished and im­proved the in­ter-min­is­te­rial joint con­fer­ence sys­tem for mar­itime search and res­cue, and ma­jor marine oil spill emer­gency dis­posal. It has also im­proved its mar­itime search and res­cue ef­forts and in­creased the num­ber of vol­un­teers. Over­all, China has pre­lim­i­nar­ily built an ex­ten­sive, prompt and ef­fi­cient sys­tem of wa­ter­way trans­port safety reg­u­la­tion and mar­itime emer­gency sup­port.

3. Tech­nol­ogy In­no­va­tion and Ap­pli­ca­tion

China leads the world in in­fra­struc­ture con­struc­tion. China’s tech­nolo­gies for high-speed, alpine, plateau and heavy-haul rail­ways have reached the world’s ad­vanced level, while high-speed rail­ways have be­come a sym­bol of made-in-China and go­ing-global prod­ucts. Rail­way and high­way con­struc­tion tech­nolo­gies have over­come world-level ge­o­log­i­cal chal­lenges such as plateau per­mafrost, and ex­pan­sive soil and desert. The con­struc­tion of the Qing­hai-Ti­bet High­way and Qing­hai-Ti­bet Rail­way has been com­pleted and they have been opened to traf­fic. A num­ber of world-class large bridges and tun­nels have been built with glob­ally ad­vanced con­struc­tion tech­nolo­gies. China’s key con­struc­tion tech­nolo­gies for off­shore deep­wa­ter ports, im­proved tech­nolo­gies for large es­tu­ary wa­ter­ways and long wa­ter­ways, and con­struc­tion tech­nolo­gies for large-scale air­ports are lead­ing the world. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Ma­cao Bridge, Yang­shan Port Con­tainer Ter­mi­nal, Yangtze Es­tu­ary Deep­wa­ter Chan­nel Im­prove­ment Project, and other ma­jor con­struc­tion projects have been car­ried out.

Equip­ment man­u­fac­tur­ing has made rapid progress. High-per­for­mance rail­way equip­ment tech­nolo­gies with pro­pri­etary in­tel­lec­tual prop­erty rights, rep­re­sented by high-speed rail­ways and high-power lo­co­mo­tives, have reached the ad­vanced world level, with some of them lead­ing the world. New en­ergy road trans­port equip­ment has re­al­ized pre­lim­i­nary in­dus­tri­al­iza­tion. Feeder lin­ers, gen­eral avi­a­tion air­craft and he­li­copters in­de­pen­dently de­vel­oped by China have been put into use, and the C919 air­liner has rolled off the as­sem­bly line, mak­ing China one of the few coun­tries ca­pa­ble of devel­op­ing large air­lin­ers in­de­pen­dently. China’s man­u­fac­tur­ing tech­nolo­gies for large, spe­cial­ized equip­ment for ter­mi­nal load­ing and un­load­ing, spe­cial marine en­gi­neer­ing ma­chin­ery ves­sels and com­plete sets of con­tainer trans­port equip­ment are world lead­ers, while its 300-m sat­u­ra­tion div­ing tech­nol­ogy has achieved a break­through. Sort­ing tech­nolo­gies in postal ser­vices, in­clud­ing op­ti­cal char­ac­ter recog­ni­tion, video com­ple­ment and ad­dress check via bar code have reached the world’s top level.

In­for­ma­tion and in­tel­li­gent tech­nolo­gies have been ex­ten­sively ap­plied. In­for­ma­tion and com­mu­ni­ca­tions tech­nolo­gies, such as big data, cloud com­put­ing, in­ter­net of things and mo­bile in­ter­net, have been widely ap­plied in trans­port, and com­bined on­line and tra­di­tional busi­ness models are thriv­ing. Rail­way pas­sen­ger trans­port has de­vel­oped an on­line book­ing sys­tem, and re­al­ized IT ap­pli­ca­tion in trans­port man­age­ment. Ex­press­way trans­port has formed a na­tion­wide Elec­tronic Toll Col­lec­tion net­work. Port Elec­tronic Data In­ter­change, Ves­sel Traf­fic Ser­vices and Ves­sel Au­to­matic Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion Sys­tem have been widely ap­plied in wa­ter trans­port man­age­ment, and an elec­tronic nautical chart of the trunk wa­ter-

ways of the Yangtze River has been de­vel­oped. China’s civil avi­a­tion busi­ness in­for­ma­tion sys­tem is glob­ally ad­vanced. Postal ser­vices have es­tab­lished a video joint mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem at na­tional, pro­vin­cial and mu­nic­i­pal lev­els. Ra­dio Fre­quency Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, Global Nav­i­ga­tion Satel­lite Sys­tem and other mod­ern nav­i­ga­tion tech­nolo­gies have been ap­plied to civil avi­a­tion and lo­gis­tics. The Bei­dou Nav­i­ga­tion Satel­lite Sys­tem has be­come the third GNSS ap­plied in in­ter­na­tional nav­i­ga­tion.

Mar­ket sys­tem has been im­proved. Through over 30 years of mar­ke­ti­za­tion, trans­port con­struc­tion, main­te­nance and traf­fic have be­come mar­ket-ori­ented. China has is­sued its Neg­a­tive List for Mar­ket Ac­cess, en­cour­ag­ing non­govern­ment cap­i­tal to in­vest in trans­port op­er­a­tion, and vig­or­ously pro­mot­ing Public-Pri­vate Part­ner­ship. Trans­port has sep­a­rated govern­ment func­tions from en­ter­prise op­er­a­tion com­pletely. The govern­ment has also stream­lined its ad­min­is­tra­tion and del­e­gated author­ity, and in­no­vated and im­proved govern­ment ap­proval ser­vices. Trans­port has been boost­ing the mar­ket credit sys­tem and im­prov­ing mar­ket reg­u­la­tion. As a re­sult, a uni­fied, open trans­port mar­ket of or­derly com­pe­ti­tion has been formed.

Le­gal frame­work has taken shape. To meet the de­mands of re­form and de­vel­op­ment, China has pro­mul­gated, re­vised and an­nulled trans­port laws and reg­u­la­tions. Cur­rently, China has eight rel­e­vant laws, namely, the Rail­way Law, High­way Law, Law on Ports, Wa­ter­way Law, Mar­itime Law, Mar­itime Traf­fic Safety Law, Civil Avi­a­tion Law and Postal Law. In ad­di­tion, there are 65 rel­e­vant ad­min­is­tra­tive reg­u­la­tions, in­clud­ing the Reg­u­la­tions on the Ad­min­is­tra­tion of Rail­way Safety, Reg­u­la­tions on the Ad­min­is­tra­tion of High­way Safety, Reg­u­la­tions on Road Trans­port, Reg­u­la­tions on In­ter­na­tional Mar­itime Trans­port, Reg­u­la­tions on the Ad­min­is­tra­tion of Traf­fic Safety in In­land Wa­ters, Reg­u­la­tions on Sea­men, Reg­u­la­tions on the Ad­min­is­tra­tion of Civil Air­ports, Reg­u­la­tions on Civil Avi­a­tion Safety, and Rules for the Im­ple­men­ta­tion of the Postal Law. There are also more than 300 rel­e­vant de­part­men­tal rules.

Com­pre­hen­sive trans­port man­age­ment sys­tem has been pre­lim­i­nar­ily es­tab­lished. In 2008 and 2013 re­spec­tively China launched two rounds of in­sti­tu­tional re­form to es­tab­lish a large trans­port depart­ment, namely, the Min­istry of Trans­port, which put the Na­tional Rail­ways Ad­min­is­tra­tion, Civil Avi­a­tion Ad­min­is­tra­tion of China and State Postal Bureau un­der its man­age­ment. All lo­cal­i­ties are pro­mot­ing struc­tural re­form for com­pre­hen­sive trans­port man­age­ment, and quick­en­ing their pace in build­ing a com­pre­hen­sive trans­port sys­tem.

III. Play­ing a Ba­sic, Pi­o­neer­ing and Serv­ing Role

To com­plete the build­ing of a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in all re­spects, the Chi­nese govern­ment gives pri­or­ity to trans­port, which plays a ba­sic, pi­o­neer­ing and serv­ing role in pro­mot­ing eco­nomic and so­cial de­vel­op­ment, in serv­ing the peo­ple and im­prov­ing their liv­ing stan­dards, and in en­hanc­ing eco­log­i­cal progress.

Sup­port­ing eco­nomic growth. In­vest­ment in trans­port in­fra­struc­ture is the en­gine of sta­ble eco­nomic growth. Dur­ing the 12th FiveYear Plan pe­riod (2011-15), a to­tal of 12.5 tril­lion yuan ($1.8 tril­lion) was in­vested in China’s trans­port in­fra­struc­ture. The im­prove­ment in the trans­port net­work and rel­e­vant ser­vices has in­creased the ef­fi­ciency of eco­nomic op­er­a­tion, re­duced lo­gis­tics cost, boosted the de­vel­op­ment of rel­e­vant in­dus­tries such as au­to­mo­biles, ship­ping, met­al­lurgy, lo­gis­tics, e-com­merce, tourism and real es­tate, and cre­ated many jobs. In 2015 China’s to­tal on­line pur­chas­ing trans­ac­tions, sup­ported by the postal in­dus­try, sur­passed 3 tril­lion yuan.

En­sur­ing cargo trans­port. China’s con­ve­nient and ef­fi­cient lo­gis­tics net­work has en­sured the smooth and ef­fi­cient tran­si­tion be­tween dif­fer­ent means of trans­port, en­hanced the ef­fi­ciency of the lo­gis­tics sys­tem, and guar­an­teed the trans­port of coal, crude oil, iron ore, grain, and other key items of cargo. In 2015 some 670 mil­lion tons of coal were shipped at Chi­nese ports, which also un­loaded 320 mil­lion tons of crude oil and 1 bil­lion tons of iron ore. Ex­press lines were made avail­able for fresh farm pro­duce, ef­fec­tively meet­ing the needs of the peo­ple.

Fa­cil­i­tat­ing the co­or­di­nated de­vel­op­ment be­tween re­gions and be­tween ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas. The Chi­nese govern­ment gives pri­or­ity to the de­vel­op­ment of trans­port and en­ables the trans­port in­dus­try to play a pi­o­neer­ing role in sup­port­ing the re­gional de­vel­op­ment of eastern, cen­tral, west­ern and north­east­ern China and the Three Ini­tia­tives, in an ef­fort to con­nect China’s de­vel­oped, mod­er­ately de­vel­oped and underdeveloped ar­eas. China is build­ing eco­nomic belts and ur­ban ag­glom­er­a­tions along the rail­way lines from Bei­jing to Shang­hai and Guangzhou, along the coast­line and the Yangtze River, near the ports in the Yangtze River and Pearl River deltas and along the Bo­hai Sea Rim, striv­ing to make these ar­eas the most eco­nom­i­cally vi­able and pop­u­lous in the coun­try. The growth of in­ter­city high­way trans­port and the de­vel­op­ment of in­ter­city rails have fa­cil­i­tated the in­te­grated de­vel­op­ment of ur­ban ag­glom­er­a­tions, and the in­te­gra­tion of ur­ban and ru­ral trans­port is bring­ing the ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas closer eco­nom­i­cally.

Pro­vid­ing trans­port ser­vices to the peo­ple and mak­ing their travel safe and con­ve­nient. China is striv­ing to build a sound sys­tem to im­prove trans­port safety, up­grade the trans­port struc­ture and im­prove trans­port ser­vices, in an ef­fort to pro­vide bet­ter ser­vices to peo­ple. The trans­port ca­pac­ity and ser­vice dur­ing the Spring Fes­ti­val and other travel peaks have been sig­nif­i­cantly en­hanced. In ci­ties the per­cent­age of peo­ple tak­ing public tran­sit is on the rise, and com­fort level of such trans­port means has been greatly en­hanced. With the rapid growth of the “In­ter­net+trans­port”, pas­sen­gers can now check the real-time sta­tus of traf­fic, plan their trips ahead of time, pur­chase tick­ets on­line, and en­joy “smart” park­ing and other one-stop ser­vices. The trans­port ser­vice and com­plaints hot­line 12328 has been put into use.

Sup­port­ing the poverty re­duc­tion and erad­i­ca­tion ef­fort. En­ter­ing the 21st cen­tury, China has ini­ti­ated a dozen projects to con­nect town­ships, towns and ad­min­is­tra­tive vil­lages to the road grid, and built trans­port in­fra­struc­ture in con­tigu­ous im­pov­er­ished ar­eas, with in­creased sup­port for trans­port de­vel­op­ment in ru­ral and im­pov­er­ished ar­eas. Dur­ing the 12th Five-Year Plan pe­riod (201115), more than 550 bil­lion yuan of ve­hi­cle pur­chase tax was al­lo­cated to sup­port trans­port de­vel­op­ment in poor ar­eas. In con­tigu­ous im­pov­er­ished ar­eas, 83.8 per­cent of county seats now have roads of Grade II or above, and 86.2 per­cent of ad­min­is­tra­tive vil­lages have tar­mac and ce­ment roads. More buses now op­er­ate on routes link­ing poverty-stricken ar­eas, and rope­ways are be­ing re­placed by bridges.

Ef­fec­tively ad­dress­ing emer­gen­cies. The trans­port emer­gency re­sponse sys­tem plays a key role in the res­cue and re­lief work fol­low­ing nat­u­ral dis­as­ters, ac­ci­dents and sim­i­lar con­tin­gen­cies. In the wake of the Wenchuan earth­quake in 2008, Yushu earth­quake in 2010 and the dev­as­tat­ing snow­storms in south­ern China in 2008, emer­gency trans­port re­sponse teams were among the first to ar­rive at the scene and open up “life­lines” for re­lief. China’ s marine search and res­cue teams have been en­gaged in res­cue work con­nected with many emer­gen­cies at sea, and ac­tively took part in the search for the Malaysia Air­line flight MH370. In the pe­riod 2010-15 China or­ga­nized and co­or­di­nated 12,411 marine search and res­cue mis­sions, sav­ing 108,464 lives, in­clud­ing 8,070 for­eign­ers.

Pro­mot­ing en­ergy-sav­ing and emis­sion-re­duc­tion. China has been vig­or­ously pro­mot­ing the green de­vel­op­ment of trans­port. Com­pared to the 2010 lev­els, in 2015 the com­pre­hen­sive en­ergy con­sump­tion per unit rail­way trans­port dropped by 6 per­cent, the en­ergy con­sump­tion per unit trans­port turnover of op­er­at­ing ve­hi­cles and ships went down by 6.5 per­cent and 10.5 per­cent re­spec­tively, and the ton/km fuel con­sump­tion of civil avi­a­tion de­creased by almost five per­cent. The strat­egy of “public tran­sit pri­or­ity” has been im­ple­mented, sup­ported by grow­ing new- and clean-en­ergy means of trans­port and a rapidly devel­op­ing public bi­cy­cle ren­tal sys­tem. In the Pearl River and Yangtze River deltas, and Bo­hai Sea Rim (Bei­jing-Tian­jin-He­bei) area, re­stric­tion zones have been set up to curb emis­sions from ships. Along the ar­ter­ies of the Yangtze River and the Bei­jingHangzhou Grand Canal, and in some coastal re­gions, pi­lot and de­mon­stra­tion projects of LNG use have been launched for wa­ter­borne trans­port, oil va­por re­cov­ery units in­stalled at some ports and shore power pro­vided to ships.

Pro­tect­ing the eco­log­i­cal en­vi­ron­ment. China is pro­mot­ing eco­log­i­cal con­ser­va­tion in the plan­ning, de­sign­ing, con­struc­tion, and op­er­a­tion of trans­port projects, and has built a num­ber of rail­ways, high­ways, ports and sea routes for de­mon­stra­tion pur­poses. It is also ex­per­i­ment­ing with eco­log­i­cal restora­tion tech­nolo­gies in trans­port in­fra­struc­ture in deserts, alpine re­gions, and recla­ma­tion ar­eas. Dur­ing the 12th Five-Year Plan pe­riod China re­stored the ecol­ogy along 1,300 km of trans­port lines, with a to­tal area of 50 mil­lion square me­ters. The re­cy­cling rate of roadsur­face ma­te­ri­als reached 40 per­cent. Mea­sures have been adopted to con­trol dust pol­lu­tion at coal and other min­er­als trans­port ports, and equip­ment stor­ages and in­stal­la­tion venues have been set up in coastal ar­eas and along the Yangtze River in case of oil spills. In­stead of tracks laid on the ground, many of China’s high-speed trains run on el­e­vated rails to spare farm­lands and keep the towns along the routes in­tact.

IV. Open­ing-up and In­ter­na­tional Co­op­er­a­tion

The Chi­nese govern­ment proac­tively en­hances its con­nec­tiv­ity with the world com­mu­nity, con­tin­u­ing to open up to and deep­en­ing its co­op­er­a­tion with the rest of the world. An all-di­men­sional, multi-layer and mul­ti­chan­nel frame­work has been formed in trans­port as re­gards open­ing up to the out­side world and in­ter­na­tional co­op­er­a­tion.

Strength­en­ing in­ter­na­tional con­nec­tiv­ity. By the end of 2015, China had es­tab­lished rail­way con­nec­tions with five of its 14 neigh­bor­ing coun­tries, with 11 rail­way cross­ing points. Mul­ti­ple con­tainer trains op­er­ate on rail­ways to Cen­tral Europe and Cen­tral Asia; high­way cross­ing points in border ar­eas, open around the year, are con­nected to roads at Grade II or above; and a group of lo­gis­tics parks and cargo op­er­a­tion cen­ters ca­pa­ble of han­dling in­ter­na­tional lo­gis­tics have been put into use. China ac­tively pro­motes in­ter­na­tional and re­gional co­op­er­a­tion in ship­ping, and is jointly push­ing for­ward the nav­i­ga­tion de­vel­op­ment of the Lan­cangMekong River with Laos, Myan­mar and Thai­land. Through code-shar­ing, air­line al­liance, joint op­er­a­tion of air routes and eq­uity co­op­er­a­tion, China’s civil avi­a­tion is striv­ing to im­prove its in­ter­na­tional flight net­work, in­crease the num­ber of flights and ex­pand its op­er­a­tional scope. In 2015, Chi­nese ex­press de­liv­ery ser­vices ex­tended their net­works over­seas, with 430 mil­lion items of mail de­liv­ered to in­ter­na­tional des­ti­na­tions as well as to Hong Kong, Ma­cao and Tai­wan. At the same time, China is strength­en­ing co­op­er­a­tion with coun­tries in­volved in the Belt and Road Ini­tia­tive, ac­tively push­ing for­ward the in­ter­con­nec­tiv­ity of trans­port in­fra­struc­ture and en­hanc­ing trans­port conve- nience. In 2015, Chi­nese cit­i­zens made some 120 mil­lion trips over­seas via var­i­ous means of trans­port.

Sup­port­ing for­eign trade. China is a ma­jor trad­ing na­tion, and the quick­ened de­vel­op­ment of its trans­port pro­vides a strong ba­sis for build­ing a new mul­ti­di­men­sional struc­ture of open­ing up and for en­hanc­ing China’s com­pet­i­tive­ness in­ter­na­tion­ally. An im­por­tant pil­lar for devel­op­ing an ex­port-ori­ented econ­omy, China’s mar­itime trans­port car­ries 90 per­cent of the coun­try’s for­eign trade cargo, 98 per­cent of im­ported iron ore, 91 per­cent of im­ported crude oil, 92 per­cent of im­ported coal and 99 per­cent of im­ported grain. Trains be­tween China and Europe have be­come an im­por­tant com­po­nent of in­ter­na­tional through freight traf­fic.

Ac­tively par­tic­i­pat­ing in in­ter­na­tional af­fairs. The Chi­nese govern­ment has al­ways val­ued the role of and ac­tively par­tic­i­pated in the ac­tiv­i­ties of in­ter­na­tional trans­port or­ga­ni­za­tions. It takes mea­sures to ful­fill its obli­ga­tions, and plays a con­struc­tive role in the Or­ga­ni­za­tion for Rail­way Co­op­er­a­tion, In­ter­na­tional Mar­itime Or­ga­ni­za­tion, In­ter­na­tional Civil Avi­a­tion Or­ga­ni­za­tion, Univer­sal Postal Union and other im­por­tant in­ter­na­tional trans­port or­ga­ni­za­tions. As a founder of the OSJD, China has made great con­tri­bu­tion in for­mu­lat­ing the or­ga­ni­za­tion’s var­i­ous stan­dards and reg­u­la­tions. China has served as mem­ber of both the UPU’s Postal Op­er­a­tions Coun­cil and Coun­cil of Ad­min­is­tra­tion since it re­sumed its le­git­i­mate seat at the or­ga­ni­za­tion in 1972. It has been elected 14 times as a cat­e­gory-A mem­ber of the IMO Coun­cil since 1989, and five times as a cat­e­gory-A mem­ber of the ICAO Coun­cil since 2004. China ac­tively pro­motes bi­lat­eral and re­gional co­op­er­a­tion. It has signed in­ter­gov­ern­men­tal agree­ments and bi­lat­eral and re­gional doc­u­ments on rail­way, high­way, mar­itime trans­port, civil avi­a­tion and postal ser­vice co­op­er­a­tion with more than 100 coun­tries. Sev­eral trans­port co­op­er­a­tion mech­a­nisms have been set up, such as the China-ASEAN and Shang­hai Co­op­er­a­tion Or­ga­ni­za­tion trans­port min­is­ters’ meet­ings, and a pro­posal has been made by China to es­tab­lish a sea­port ser­vice or­ga­ni­za­tion for APEC. China ac­tively ful­fills its in­ter­na­tional obli­ga­tions, sup­ports the trans­port de­vel­op­ment of other devel­op­ing coun­tries, and has aided the con­struc­tion of a se­ries of trans­port projects in Asia and Africa.

Con­tin­u­ing to ex­pand the scope of open­ing-up. The trans­port in­dus­try was one of China’s first in­dus­tries to open to the out­side world. In 1979, the China Mer­chants Group, then un­der the ad­min­is­tra­tion of China’s for­mer Min­istry of Trans­port, founded the Shekou In­dus­trial Zone in Shen­zhen, tak­ing the first step in the coun­try’s open­ing-up ini­tia­tive. In 1984, the Chi­nese govern­ment opened 14 coastal ci­ties, and coastal ports be­came win­dows opened to the rest of the world. To­day, in the area of trans­port in­fra­struc­ture, ex­cept rail­way ar­ter­ies and civil air­ports, all high­ways, bridges, ports, other types of rail­ways and ur­ban rail tracks are open to for­eign cap­i­tal as far as con­struc­tion and op­er­a­tion is con­cerned. There is no limit on for­eign cap­i­tal for trans­port ser­vices such as high­way freight, in­ter­na­tional con­tainer mul­ti­modal trans­port, and sup­port­ing ser­vices for in­ter­na­tional mar­itime trans­port.

Quick­en­ing the pace of Chi­nese en­ter­prises’ “go­ing global”. China has ex­hib­ited a strong com­pet­i­tive edge in the ar­eas of rail­way build­ing, trans­port projects and port op­er­a­tion. China trans­ports one third of the to­tal global mar­itime cargo. China’s trans­port busi­nesses are quick­en­ing their steps of “go­ing global”, and are trans­form­ing them­selves from tra­di­tional la­bor ex­port and project con­tract­ing en­ti­ties to ex­porters of cap­i­tal, tech­nol­ogy, man­age­ment and stan­dards in the ar­eas of trans­port in­fra­struc­ture, port op­er­a­tion, ocean trans­port, trans­port equip­ment, ship in­spec­tion and mar­itime train­ing.

V. De­vel­op­ment Goals for the Next Five Years

Dur­ing the 13th Five-Year Plan pe­riod (2016-20), China will con­tinue to de­velop its trans­port in­dus­try in ac­cor­dance with the over­all plan to seek eco­nomic, po­lit­i­cal, cul­tural, so­cial, and eco­log­i­cal progress and the Four-pronged Strat­egy. It will im­ple­ment the guide­line of in­no­va­tion, co­or­di­na­tion, green de­vel­op­ment, open­ing-up, and shar­ing of ben­e­fits, con­tinue to cen­ter on the peo­ple’s needs, im­prove the qual­ity and ef­fi­ciency of de­vel­op­ment, and fully uti­lize the com­par­a­tive ad­van­tages of dif­fer­ent means of trans­port. China will con­tinue to de­velop its trans­port grid char­ac­ter­ized by in­tel­li­gent man­age­ment, in­te­grated ser­vices and green de­vel­op­ment, and build a com­pre­hen­sive trans­port sys­tem with func­tional “nodes” that con­nect do­mes­tic and in­ter­na­tional trans­port chan­nels, cover ur­ban and ru­ral ar­eas, and pro­vide in­te­grated and ef­fi­cient trans­port ser­vices. All this will con­trib­ute to the com­ple­tion of the build­ing of a mod­er­ately pros­per­ous so­ci­ety in all re­spects, to the growth of the Chi­nese econ­omy, and to con­nect­ing China more closely with the rest of the world.

Driv­ing the re­form of trans­port to a deeper level. China will pro­mote the fur­ther in­te­gra­tion of dif­fer­ent means of trans­port, and build a safe, con­ve­nient, ef­fi­cient, green, and eco­nom­i­cal mod­ern trans­port sys­tem. It will push ahead the mar­ket-ori­ented re­form of its rail­ways, deepen re­forms of the in­vest­ment and fi­nanc­ing sys­tem, fi­nan­cial pow­ers and ex­pen­di­ture re­spon­si­bil­i­ties, and re­form its airspace man­age­ment sys­tem. At the same time, it will fur­ther pro­mote the trans­for­ma­tion of govern­ment func­tions, con­tinue to stream­line ad­min­is­tra­tion and del­e­gate pow­ers to lower lev­els, strengthen reg­u­la­tions, im­prove govern­ment ser­vices and en­hance ad­min­is­tra­tive ef­fi­ciency.

Build­ing a trans­port net­work that cov­ers the whole of China and ex­tends be­yond its bor­ders. China will build a com­pre­hen­sive trans­port net­work that spreads from east to west and south to north, con­struct pas­sage­ways that ex­tend be­yond its bor­ders, and de­velop sea routes for the Mar­itime Silk Road. China will de­velop a high-qual­ity fast-tran­sit grid, form a high-speed rail net­work, im­prove the na­tional ex­press­way net­work, build an ap­pro­pri­ate num­ber of ex­press­ways at the lo­cal level, and en­hance the func­tions of air­line hubs and na­tional and re­gional air­ports. China will im­prove its ba­sic road net­work to cover more ar­eas, speed up the con­struc­tion of rail­ways in the cen­tral and west­ern ar­eas, up­grade na­tional and pro­vin­cial high­ways and con­struc­tion of con­gested sec­tions, im­prove coastal and in­land river trans­port fa­cil­i­ties, strengthen the con­struc­tion of roads and air­ports in ru­ral ar­eas, and con­nect the oil and gas pipe­lines in dif­fer­ent ar­eas. China will im­prove its postal ser­vices and net­work, and strength- en the in­fra­struc­ture for ex­press mail de­liv­ery. By 2020, China will have 30,000 km of high-speed rail­ways, cov­er­ing 80 per­cent of big ci­ties, and 30,000 km of newly ren­o­vated ex­press­ways. Ad­min­is­tra­tive vil­lages with the nec­es­sary con­di­tions will have tar­mac and ce­ment roads and shut­tle bus ser­vices, and all vil­lages will have ac­cess to mail ser­vice.

Devel­op­ing mod­ern and ef­fi­cient in­ter­city trans­port. In ur­ban ag­glom­er­a­tions, China will build com­mut­ing cir­cles of 1 to 2 hours be­tween the cen­tral ci­ties and be­tween cen­tral and pe­riph­eral ci­ties, and one-hour com­mut­ing cir­cles be­tween cen­tral ci­ties and key pe­riph­eral towns. In ur­ban ar­eas it will vig­or­ously de­velop in­ter­city high-speed and sub­ur­ban rail­ways, and form a mul­tilevel rail tran­sit net­work. With pri­or­ity fo­cused on public tran­sit, China will speed up the de­vel­op­ment of its ur­ban rail and bus rapid tran­sit, and other means of high-ca­pac­ity public trans­port. By 2020 in­ter­city rail­way net­works will be com­pleted in the ur­ban ag­glom­er­a­tions of the Bei­jing-Tian­jin-He­bei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, mid­dle reaches of the Yangtze River, Cen­tral Plains, Chengdu-Chongqing, and Shan­dong Penin­sula ar­eas. More ef­forts will be made in ci­ties with 3 mil­lion or more res­i­dents to form ur­ban rail trans­port net­works, and about 3,000 km of new tracks will be added to the ur­ban rail tran­sit sys­tem. China will also strengthen the de­vel­op­ment of ter­mi­nals for postal and ex­press de­liv­ery ser­vices.

Build­ing in­te­grated trans­port hubs. China will en­hance the lay­out of its trans­port hubs, build in­ter­na­tional trans­port hubs in Bei­jing, Shang­hai and Guangzhou, and im­prove the ser­vices and func­tions of na­tional, re­gional and lo­cal trans­port hubs. It will strengthen the con­struc­tion of key trans­port cen­ters in cen­tral and west­ern China and key ports in border re­gions, and in­crease their im­pacts over a wider area. China will im­prove the ser­vices of its trans­port hubs, im­prove the trans­fer fa­cil­i­ties and the col­lect­ing and dis­tribut­ing net­works, en­able seam­less pas­sen­ger and freight trans­fer, and co­or­di­nate dif­fer­ent means of trans­port, so as to in­crease the ef­fi­ciency of trans­port and lo­gis­tics.

Pro­mot­ing the green and in­tel­li­gent de­vel­op­ment of trans­port ser­vices. China is striv­ing to push for­ward the green de­vel­op­ment of trans­port through con­ser­va­tion and in­ten­sive use of re­sources and pro­mot­ing the use of stan­dard­ized, low-car­bon, and mod­ern equip­ment and en­ergy-sav­ing means in the trans­port sec­tor. With the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the “in­ter­net+trans­port” ac­tion plan, China is en­cour­ag­ing the de­vel­op­ment of in­tel­li­gent trans­port, and the ap­pli­ca­tion of ad­vanced in­for­ma­tion tech­nol­ogy and smart ap­pli­ances. More ef­forts will be made in the de­vel­op­ment of through-trans­port, smart man­age­ment and public in­for­ma­tion sys­tems, in strength­en­ing mul­ti­modal trans­port, and in en­hanc­ing the qual­ity and profit of trans­port ser­vices.

Im­prov­ing safety in the trans­port in­dus­try. China will im­prove the reg­u­la­tions and sys­tem for trans­port safety con­trol, and see to it that the re­spon­si­bil­i­ties of trans­port busi­nesses and those of the su­per­vis­ing or­gans are thor­oughly im­ple­mented. China will strengthen its ca­pac­ity for emer­gency re­sponse and res­cue, em­pha­siz­ing pre­cau­tion­ary mea­sures, car­ry­ing out spe­cial ac­tions to en­sure trans­port safety and strength­en­ing the screen­ing of po­ten­tial safety haz­ards and se­cu­rity risks. It will also fo­cus on key ar­eas, fully im­ple­ment safety con­trol in the trans­port in­dus­try, and res­o­lutely strive to re­duce the oc­cur­rence of se­ri­ous ac­ci­dents.

Con­clu­sion

To achieve the Two Cen­te­nary Goals and re­al­ize the Chi­nese Dream of the great re­ju­ve­na­tion of the Chi­nese na­tion, higher stan­dards must be set for the de­vel­op­ment of trans­port in China. Trans­port pro­motes de­vel­op­ment, ex­changes bring about co­op­er­a­tion, and in­ter­con­nec­tiv­ity en­ables mu­tual ben­e­fits. The Chi­nese govern­ment will con­tinue to im­prove the coun­try’s trans­port ser­vices so as to bet­ter serve China’s so­cioe­co­nomic de­vel­op­ment, and con­tinue to strengthen co­op­er­a­tion in the area of trans­port with other coun­tries so that they can take new op­por­tu­ni­ties and ad­dress chal­lenges to­gether to re­al­ize com­mon de­vel­op­ment and pros­per­ity.

A new high-speed rail­way link­ing Xi’an and Chengdu, two ma­jor west­ern China ci­ties, is sched­uled to be com­pleted at the end of 2017.Trains on the 510-km-long line will run at a speed of 250 km/h, slash­ing travel time be­tween the two ci­ties to about two hours from the cur­rent 13 hours.

Cao Yu / for china daily

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