多花黄精生殖生物学特性研究

CJI (Traditional Chinese Medicine) - - Chinese Journal Of Information On Traditional Chin -

刘艳1,罗敏 1,秦民坚 2,谢国勇 2,章文伟 1,陈强 1,肖波 1,李娜 1

1.重庆市药物种植研究所,中国医学科学院药用植物研究所重庆分所,重庆 408435;

2.中国药科大学,江苏 南京 210009

摘要:目的 研究多花黄精的生殖生物学特性。方法 在花期定点定株观察记录多花黄精的开花习性,用TTC法检测其开花各时期的花粉活力,采用联苯胺-过氧化氢法检测不同开花时期柱头的可授性,估算杂交指数并计算其花粉胚珠比,通过6种不同的人工授粉方式处理确定多花黄精的繁育系统类型。结果 多花黄精在

4 月 5日左右现蕾,4月 10 日左右开花,5月上旬陆续开始结实,花期约30~40 d。自花药未开裂时花粉即开始具有活力,花朵枯萎后花粉失去活力,开花当日花粉活力达73.06%±5.19%。自花朵未开放时柱头即具有活性,花朵开始衰败时柱头活性减弱消失。多花黄精的杂交指数为4,据 Dafni标准其繁育系统为部分自交亲和,异交,需要传粉者;其花粉胚珠比为 1799.20±445.54,据 Cruden标准其繁育系统为兼性异交。人工控制授粉试验结果表明多花黄精具有无融合生殖、自交和异交3种生殖方式,其结实率受外界条件影响较大,总体结实率较低,自然状态下仅为17.46%。结论 多花黄精具有无融合生殖、有性生殖与无性生殖3种生殖方式。关键词:多花黄精;开花习性;花粉活力;柱头活性;繁育系统

DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1005-5304.2017.11.017

中图分类号:R282.2 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1005-5304(2017)11-0071-04

LIU Yan1, LUO Min1, QIN Min-jian2, XIE Guo-yong2, ZHANG Wen-wei1, CHEN Qiang1, XIAO Bo1, LI Na1 (1. Chongqing Institute of Medicinal Plant Cultivation, Chongqing Branch Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 408435, China; 2. China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China)

Abstract: Objective To study the reproductive biology of Chinese herbal medicine Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Methods The flowering habit of P. cyrtonema was observed and recorded regularly. The pollen viability at different flowering periods was detected by TTC. The stigma activity at different flowering periods was measured by the benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method. The hybridization index was estimated and pollen-ovule ratio was calculated. The breeding system of P. cyrtonema was determined by six different artificial pollination treatments. Results The flower buds of P. cyrtonema appeared at April 5. They bloomed at April 10 and fruited early in May, flowering about 30–40 days. The pollen began to have viability since the anthers were not cracked, and loss viability after flowers withered. The pollen viability at the bloom day was about 73.06%±5.19%. The stigmas began to have activity before flowers opening and lost it when the flowers began to decline. The hybridization index was 4, so the breeding system of P. cyrtonema Hua was partly self-compatible and xenogamy needing pollinator according to Dafni’s standard. The pollen-ovule ratio was 1799.20±445.54, therefore the breeding system of P. cyrtonema Hua was facultative xenogamy according to Cruden’s standard. The results of artificial pollination experiments showed that P. cyrtonema Hua had three breeding methods, including apomixis, selfing and outcrossing. The fruit setting rate of P. cyrtonema Hua was greatly influenced by external conditions such as strong wind and rain. Generally, P. cyrtonema Hua had a low fruit-set percentage because of obvious flower and fruit dropping. The natural fruit setting rate was only 17.46%. Conclusion The coexistence of apomixes, sexual and asexual reproduction in P. cyrtonema are the survival strategy adapting to different habitat types.

Key words: Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua; flowering habit; pollen viability; stigma activity; breeding system

Study on Reproductive Biology of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua

基金项目:重庆市卫生计生委中医药科技项目(zy201402124、zy201702147);西部之光访问学者计划项目(2016 年)

通讯作者:章文伟,E-mail:ssf333@126.com

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