迈向“正气候”目标的中国城市规划建设路径图

South Architecture - - 第一页 - 叶祖达Stanley YIP

摘要 我国的《国民经济和社会发展第十三个五年规划纲要》于2016 年 3 月 17日发布,其中应对全球气候变化内容包括具体任务如“推进工业、能源、建筑、交通等重点领域低碳发展。支持优化开发区域率先实现碳排放达到峰值。深化各类低碳试点,实施近零碳排放区示范工程”。我们要从城区空间与多元化手段整合的要求上,通过创新规划、设计、运营路径达到零碳排放的整体净效应。我们需要提出 “正气候” 的城市项目发展模式,作为未来我国城市通过城区建设更新带来的机遇,迈向零碳排放的手段。正气候发展模式一方面要求把未来新建城区的碳排放量最少化,同时也要把握城区发展和更新的机遇,使周边地区碳排放量减低的正外部性(如城市空间(如土地-交通)结构重组、推动绿色建筑、周边社区减碳项目的投资、既有建筑节能改造、 推动市场手段与体制改革等,最后使在运营阶段达到“净负排放”整体效果。这就是“正气候”效果。 迈向正气候的城区发展模式,需要在目前我国法定城市规划与建设流程上提出创新体制,引入“场地内”与“场地外”的减缓碳排放机制, 编制正气候城区建设路径图, 在建设全生命周期内保障减碳排放目标能够被贯彻,于项目完成后在运营阶段达到正气候效果。正气候城区建设模式是我国未来迈向近零碳排放区建设的有效路径。。

关键词 近零碳排放社区;零排放建筑;正气候发展;低碳城市;绿色生态城区abstract The “Outline of the 13th Five Year Plan for National Economy and Social Development” announced on 17 March 2016 has specifically included the national tasks to “promote low carbon development in industry, energy, building, and transportation," "support more developed districts to achieve early emission peaks," and "further develop low carbon pilot projects and implement demonstrative near zero emission projects.”To meet the demand of the integration of urban spaces and multiple methods, we should achieve the overall net effect of zero carbon emission through the roadmap of innovative planning, design, and operation. We need to introduce a "Climate Positive" model as a tool in urban development and renewal in order to reach the target of zero carbon emission. On one hand, the Climate Positive Development model requires urban district projects to minimize their carbon emission. On the other hand, these projects also need to create new opportunities of restructuring positive externalities to reduce the emissions outside the project boundaries (such as urban spaces, land use, and transportation), promoting green buildings, investing in emission-reduction initiatives in surrounding neighborhoods, retrofitting existing buildings, institutionally reforming market mechanisms, etc. The goal is to reach "net negative emission" in operational stage. Moving towards "Climate Positive" for cities, we should introduce an innovative urban planning system and construction procedures, set up goals for "on-site" and "off-site" emission mitigations, and establish a Climate Positive roadmap to ensure the emission-reduction goals can be reached throughout the life cycle of the projects. The Climate Positive Development approach is an effective pathway for Chinese cities to move towards near zero emission goals.

KeY Words near zero carbon emission district; zero emission building; climate positive development; low carbon cities; green eco-city district

中图分类号 TU119+.4;TU981文献标识码 A

DOI 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0232.2017.02.034 文章编号 1000-0232(2017)02-0034-06

作者简介 香港规划师学会原会长,北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院兼职教授;电子邮箱 :stanley. yip@163.com

The “Climate Positive” Urban Planning Roadmap for Chinese Cities

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