基于景观基因视角的中国传统乡村保护与发展研究/ 王南希 陆琦

Study on Traditional Rural Village's Protection and Development Based on the Concept of Landscape Gene

South Architecture - - Contents - 1 2 王南希 陆琦Wang Nanxi Lu Qi

摘要 在快速城镇化而文化遗产保护观念严重滞后的历史阶段,我国特有的城乡二元化的社会结构加剧了乡村文化遗产的破坏,因此传统乡村景观的保护和可持续发展成为亟待解决的问题。景观基因概念提供了一种从自然科学的视角来审视传统聚落文化特征的新方法。通过乡村景观基因概念理解,结合乡村景观基因完整性、真实性、延续性特性,识别文化景观基因在中国传统村落乡村景观中的形态,在此基础上,提出通过区域划分及景观控制实现中国传统村落乡村景观规划设计中继承历史地域乡村景观基因的方法。区域划分强调的是“区域性”“文化重要性”及“相互关联性”,通过景观基因点-线-网-面-体进行综合评价及考虑。景观控制强调针对乡村景观基因识别的不同层面形态,即传统聚落景观层面、农业生产景观层面、土地利用景观层面及非物质文化景观层面上的把控来控制有机更新过程中的传统乡村景观基因的变化。从乡村景观基因角度出发,以期为城市化进程中中国传统村落的保护与发展提供新的思路。关键词 中国传统村落;乡村景观;景观基因;区域保护;有机更新

abstract In the historic period of rapid urbanization and lagging in cultural heritage protection, the characteristic of the urban and rural dualistic social structure aggravates the country's cultural heritage damage. Therefore traditional rural landscape protection and the sustainable development become problems to be solved. Landscape gene concept provides a new method to examine the cultural characteristics of traditional settlements from the perspective of natural science. By understanding the concept of rural landscape genes, combining the characteristics of integrity, authenticity, continuity of rural landscape genes, and recognizing cultural landscape gene patterns which lie in traditional villages landscape, the paper puts forward the methods of zoning and landscape control which could help inherit the historical local rural landscape genes in Chinese traditional villages’ rural landscape planning and design. Zoning emphasizes the regional, cultural importance and correlation, uses the landscape gene point-line -network-face-system to carry on the comprehensive evaluation and consideration. Landscape control emphasizes on controlling genetic changes in the process of organic update of traditional rural landscape in different levels, which are the traditional settlement landscape level, agricultural production landscape level, land utilization landscape level and nonmaterial cultural landscape level. From the perspective of rural landscape gene, the research so as to provide new ideas to the protection of traditional Chinese villages in the process of urbanization and development.

Key WOrds Chinese traditional villages; rural landscape; landscape gene; regional protection; organic update *国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目:增强风景园林耐候性的设计方法与材料技术研究——以湿热地区重要城市公共空间为例,项目编号:51308221;2015年度中央高校基本科研业务费项目:岭南地区乡村景观价值与感知评估研究,项目编号:2015ZM25;2015年本科教研教改项目:风景园林数字化规划设计教学方法与流程研究,项目编号: Y1151030。

中图分类号 TU982.29; TU983文献标识码 A

DOI 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0232.2017.03.058 文章编号 1000-0232(2017)03-0058-06

作者简介 1 助理研究员;2 教授,通讯作者,电子邮箱:luqi@scut.edu.cn;1&2 华南理工大学建筑学院、亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室、广州市景观建筑重点实验室

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