Fall of a na­tional as­set

From na­tion­al­i­sa­tion to pri­vati­sa­tion

Down to Earth - - COVER STORY -

1957 Mines and Min­er­als (De­vel­op­ment and Reg­u­la­tion) (MMDR) Act came into be­ing; it placed mines and min­er­als un­der the con­trol of the Cen­tre but al­lowed it to only de­velop and reg­u­late the mines

1973 Coal Mines Na­tion­al­i­sa­tion (CMN) Act en­acted; 711 coal mines were na­tion­alised whose de­vel­op­ment was vested in the Cen­tre; the rest con­tin­ued to be op­er­ated by pri­vate com­pa­nies

1976 CMN Act amended; min­ing leases with pri­vate lease hold­ers ter­mi­nated ex­cept for iron and steel who were al­lowed min­ing for cap­tive use

Oct, 1991 The Plan­ning Com­mis­sion pro­posed the en­try of pri­vate en­ti­ties to de­velop coal and lig­nite mines as cap­tive units of power projects

Jan, 1992 Cab­i­net ap­proval sought for al­low­ing pri­vate sec­tor par­tic­i­pa­tion in cap­tive coal min­ing op­er­a­tions for power gen­er­a­tion and other end uses to be no­ti­fied from time to time

Jul, 1992 Coal min­istry set up Screen­ing Com­mit­tee to im­ple­ment pro­vi­sions of cap­tive min­ing as per the 1976 amend­ment clauses

May, 1993 CMN Act amended to al­low pri­vate sec­tor par­tic­i­pa­tion in coal min­ing for cap­tive use for pur­pose of power gen­er­a­tion as well as for other cap­tive end uses to be no­ti­fied from time to time. Coal wash­ery was also in­cluded as end use Mar, 1996 Ce­ment in­cluded as an end use sec­tor Mar, 1999 NDA gov­ern­ment led by BJP al­lowed cap­tive coal min­ing com­pa­nies to sell coal in the open mar­ket to keep the sur­plus stock away from fire

2001 New State Min­ing Pol­icy came into be­ing; al­lowed state agen­cies to mine com­mer­cially

May, 2003 Elec­tric­ity Act 2003 brought about elec­tric­ity re­forms but cre­ated open and short-term mar­kets for power trad­ing. With no long-term power pur­chase agree­ments with dis­tri­bu­tion com­pa­nies in place de­spite coal al­lo­ca­tions since 1993, many cap­tive power pro­duc­ers switched to trad­ing in th­ese power ex­changes, which led to high tar­iff

Jul, 2004 Idea of com­pet­i­tive bid­ding to en­sure trans­parency in coal block al­lo­ca­tion was pro­posed

Sept, 2010 MMDR Act amended to al­low the Cen­tre to set the terms and con­di­tions for the se­lec­tion of a company through com­pet­i­tive bid­ding

Feb, 2012 Auc­tion by Com­pet­i­tive Bid­ding of Coal Mines Rules in­tro­duced

Aug, 2012 CAG re­port on Per­for­mance Au­dit of Al­lo­ca­tion of Coal Blocks and Aug­men­ta­tion of Coal Pro­duc­tion tabled in Par­lia­ment

Aug 25, 2014 Supreme Court de­clared coal block al­lo­ca­tion process be­tween 1993 and 2010 il­le­gal

Sept 9, 2014 The court re­served its judge­ment

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