How to un­der­stand a text

New Straits Times - - Higher Ed - LEELA CHAKRABARTY ed­u­ca­ Try to in­fer the cor­rect word to com­plete the sen­tences in ques­tions 1-5 based on the pas­sage. A. per­spec­tive B. con­se­quence C. pre-req­ui­site D. symp­tom A. un­nec­es­sary B. im­per­a­tive C. rec­om­mended D. pos­si­ble Read


ONE of the read­ing skills is mak­ing in­fer­ences. Good read­ers make in­fer­ences, or con­clu­sions, as they read. It’s an im­por­tant skill for un­der­stand­ing text. When you in­fer, you go beyond the sur­face de­tails to see other mean­ings that the de­tails sug­gest or im­ply. When the mean­ings of words are not stated clearly in the con­text of the text, they may be im­plied — that is, sug­gested or hinted at. When mean­ings are im­plied, you may in­fer them.

The gen­eral sense of the sen­tence can also help you fig­ure out the mean­ing of an un­known word. In this case, you can rely on your own prior knowl­edge and ex­pe­ri­ence. Some­times, au­thors in­clude in­for­ma­tion in an­other sen­tence in the para­graph that as­sists you to de­ter­mine the mean­ing of an un­fa­mil­iar word. You need to do am­ple prac­tice in or­der to master th­ese skills. It is prob­a­bly one of the most fre­quently asked ques­tions. Does pain cause poor sleep­ing pat­terns or is it the other way around? Ac­cord­ing to Robert Oex­man, it works both ways. “Peo­ple who suf­fer from pain won’t have a good night’s sleep be­cause they keep toss­ing and turn­ing. How­ever, healthy peo­ple who are de­prived of a good sleep will suf­fer from pain such as joint pain.”

Oex­man, who is the di­rec­tor of United States-based Sleep To Live In­sti­tute, says mil­lions of peo­ple who suf­fer from poor sleep­ing pat­terns will re­sort to med­i­ca­tion. Un­for­tu­nately, many end up de­pen­dent on the drugs, which can, at times, lead to death. Sci­ence has proven that deep, restora­tive sleep can help awaken one’s full po­ten­tial. Suf­fi­cient qual­ity sleep is es­sen­tial. Con­cen­tra­tion im­proves, mem­ory gets bet­ter, and at a cel­lu­lar level, your body re­pairs dam­age caused by stress through­out the day.

In other words, your body recharges and re­ju­ve­nates. Un­for­tu­nately, many peo­ple suf­fer from poor sleep­ing pat­terns due to var­i­ous rea­sons such as pain and sleep­ing on hard and lumpy mat­tresses. Con­trary to pop­u­lar think­ing, nap­ping dur­ing the day for a long pe­riod of time is also un­healthy as you need to con­sol­i­date your sleep at night.

Although med­i­ca­tion will help you sleep, it is only for the short-term. In the long term, you need cog­ni­tive be­havioural ther­apy that looks at the var­i­ous rea­sons why you can­not sleep. It can be the mat­tress, tem­per­a­ture, noise or light in your bed­room or even a snor­ing part­ner. If some­one has lower back pain, then maybe they need to get a soft mat­tress. For rup­tured discs, they may need surgery.

1. A neg­a­tive _______________ of us­ing med­i­ca­tion to over­come poor sleep­ing pat­terns is that pa­tients will show a pat­tern of de­pen­dence on such drugs. 2. Sci­ence has proven that deep, _______________ sleep can help awaken one’s full po­ten­tial.


Pas­sage 3. The writer points out that it is _________ to have suf­fi­cient sleep to en­sure im­proved con­cen­tra­tion, bet­ter mem­ory and body dam­age re­pair.

A. re­cu­per­a­tive B. long C. dis­turbed D. reg­u­lar A. ex­ter­nal

B. in­ter­nal

C. both ex­ter­nal and in­ter­nal D. be­havioural

4. In para­graph four, fac­tors that can cause

poor sleep are _____________.

The line stretched for­ever. Peo­ple put their bags on the floor and inched them for­ward. My mother and I re­moved our shoes. There was an an­nounce­ment about a gate change and a de­lay on an ar­rival from Hong Kong.

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