Grooming futureproof work talents
IT is interesting times for tertiary education. Rapid technological advances have given rise to trends such as automation, globalisation and workplace change within industries, requiring universities to produce students who have a broader set of 21st century skills that will enable them to thrive in the future.
Talents entering the workforce are expected to have strong foundational skills well as the ability to think independently, identify and solve problems on their own, work collaboratively, and learn new knowledge and skills when necessary.
At the same time, institutes of higher learning are already experiencing the enrolment of Gen Z — those born between 1996 and 2009 — who are digital natives with the always connected mentality and digital devices and profiles which they view as an extension of themselves.
Gen Z is technology-driven just like Gen Y but even more so as technology is more than a tool — it is part of who they are, said Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Centre for Teaching and Learning Technologies director Professor Datuk Dr Mohamed Amin Embi.
In his inaugural lecture at UKM last year, Mohamed Amin said Gen Z has unique learning habits.
“They have a world of information at their fingertips; they can simply Google anything they need to know. Instead of wasting time at memorising, they focus on learning to find, interpret and take advantage of information,” he said.
They multi-task with an Internet-connected device while watching TV — surviving distraction. And they learn visually as a result of constant stimulation in the form of video games, YouTube videos and television.
“If educators desire to remain relevant to Gen Z, they need to rethink teaching and redesign learning that will engage students in meaningful and deep learning,” said Mohamed Amin.
However, he added that the problem with today’s education — at the school and tertiary level — is that most educators teach the way they were taught in the past.
“There is a need to rethink and redesign 21st century teaching and learning so that they meet the needs of the era. As 21st century educators, it is imperative that we redesign the traditional concept of teaching and learning, and explore new ways to improve students’ experience to prepare them for tomorrow’s world.”
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) School of Educational Studies dean Professor Dr Hairul Nizam Ismail said classrooms in Malaysian higher education institutions still predominantly adopt the “factory line” concept of teaching and learning where many university lecturers prefer the teacher-centred approach that emphasises delivering lectures during the duration of the class, while students listen passively in their seats.
“Tertiary students should possess learning and innovation techniques; information, media and technological competencies; and life and career skills that will increase their marketability, employability and readiness for citizenship in a competitive world.
“For learning and innovation skills, students need to be creative, think critically and possess problem-solving, communication and collaboration skills,” said Hairul Nizam.
As such, Malaysian higher education institutions are to implement various teaching strategies and approaches such as e- and blended learning, flipped classrooms and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs).
These strategies and approaches are suitable to be introduced in higher education institutions as the teaching tools provide flexibility and interactivity to attract 21st century students.
“A technology-based student-centred learning approach will not only make learning more interesting for students, it can also encourage them to actively learn and have confidence to interact with coursemates and lecturers. These characteristics are important to enhance marketability upon graduating.
“This is different from traditional teachercentred learning, which allows students to remain rather passive. This type of ‘redesigning’ is needed to shape students’ attitudes and improve their skills towards becoming more competitive in the job market. Providing students with specific competencies, such as the ability to utilise information and communications technology tools and higher order thinking skills, will give them the edge they need for the current job market.”
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Faculty of EdROZANA ucational Studies dean Professor Dr Aida Suraya Md. Yunus meanwhile highlighted students need real-life learning experiences, and to work on tasks and attend meetings (or briefings) with chief executive officers and industry players.
“We try to arrange more engagement with the industry, therefore the lecturer will also need industry experience. We conduct field trips, collaborate with organisations to allow students to translate theory into practice,” said Aida Suraya.
Students also expect to have different kinds of learning spaces, no longer a lecture theatre or tables in a classroom with them facing the teacher.
“They need a more relaxed atmosphere, tables that can be shifted to allow group discussions and flip charts.
“Our lecturers upload their teaching materials online for students to refer. Not only are lecture notes uploaded, but also links to relevant websites, videos, animated materials, platform for students to share their materials with the class, online discussions/chat rooms with the lecturer and fellow students. This allows students to explore beyond the confines of the course content,” she added.
“A lot of discussion and presentation take place in the course of our programmes. Although the budget is limited, the faculty plans to transform all classrooms into conducive learning spaces — the ‘future classroom’ — for students.
“It will not only expose them to emerging tech-