My un­cle died of stroke

Daily Trust - - HEALTH -

Com­pli­ments of the sea­son. An un­cle of mine who had high blood pres­sure but poorly man­aged sud­denly col­lapsed and suf­fered stroke. He died 24 hours af­ter the col­lapse. Please for the sake of many peo­ple who need to know, pro­vide in­for­ma­tion about stroke.

Ab­haram V.

Thanks Abra­ham for your ques­tion, “stroke oc­curs when the blood sup­ply to the brain is in­ter­rupted or re­duced. This de­prives the brain of oxy­gen and nu­tri­ents, which can cause the brain cells to die. A stroke may be caused by a blocked artery (is­chemic stroke) or the leak­ing or burst­ing of a blood ves­sel (hem­or­rhagic stroke).”

Com­mon Symp­toms

1. Trou­ble with speak­ing and un­der­stand­ing. 2. Paral­y­sis or numb­ness of the face, arm or leg. 3. Trou­ble with see­ing in one or both eyes. 4. Headache. A sud­den, se­vere headache. 5. Trou­ble with walk­ing.

Po­ten­tial Causes

Is­chemic stroke; about 85 per­cent of strokes are is­chemic strokes. Is­chemic strokes oc­cur when the ar­ter­ies to the brain be­come nar­rowed or blocked, caus­ing se­verely re­duced blood flow (is­chemia).

1. Throm­botic stroke. A throm­botic stroke oc­curs when a blood clot (throm­bus) forms in one of the ar­ter­ies that sup­ply blood to the brain. A clot may be caused by fatty de­posits (plaque) that build up in ar­ter­ies and cause re­duced blood flow (ath­er­o­scle­ro­sis) or other artery con­di­tions.

2. Em­bolic stroke. An em­bolic stroke oc­curs when a blood clot or other de­bris forms away from the brain com­monly in the heartand is swept through blood­stream to lodge in nar­rower brain ar­ter­ies. This type of blood clot is called an em­bo­lus.

Hem­or­rhagic stroke; oc­curs when a blood ves­sel in the brain leaks or rup­tures. Brain hem­or­rhages can re­sult from many con­di­tions that af­fect blood ves­sels, in­clud­ing un­con­trolled high blood pres­sure (hy­per­ten­sion), overtreat­ment with an­ti­co­ag­u­lants and weak spots in blood ves­sel walls (aneurysms).

1. In an in­trac­ere­bral hem­or­rhage, a blood ves­sel in the brain bursts and spills into the sur­round­ing brain tis­sue, dam­ag­ing brain cells. Brain cells be­yond the leak are de­prived of blood and also dam­aged.High blood pres­sure, trauma, vas­cu­lar mal­for­ma­tions, use of blood-thin­ning med­i­ca­tions and other con­di­tions may cause an in­trac­ere­bral hem­or­rhage.

2. In a sub­arach­noid hem­or­rhage, an artery on or near the sur­face of the brain bursts and spills into the space be­tween the sur­face of the brain and skull. This bleed­ing is of­ten sig­naled by a sud­den, se­vere headache.

Tran­sient is­chemic at­tack (TIA);

A tran­sient is­chemic at­tack (TIA) — also known as a mini-stroke — is a brief pe­riod of symp­toms sim­i­lar to those you’d have in a stroke. A tem­po­rary de­crease in blood sup­ply to part of the brain causes TIAs, which of­ten last less than five min­utes.Like an is­chemic stroke, a TIA oc­curs when a clot or de­bris blocks blood flow to part of the brain. A TIA doesn’t leave last­ing symp­toms be­cause the block­age is tem­po­rary.

What are the risk fac­tors?

1. High blood pres­sure — the risk of stroke be­gins to in­crease at blood pres­sure read­ings higher than 120/80 mil­lime­ters of mer­cury (mm Hg).

2. Cig­a­rette smok­ing sec­ond­hand smoke. 3. High choles­terol. 4. Di­a­betes. 5. Ob­struc­tive sleep ap­nea — a sleep dis­or­der in which the oxy­gen level in­ter­mit­tently drops dur­ing the night.

6. Car­dio­vas­cu­lar dis­ease, in­clud­ing heart fail­ure, heart de­fects, heart in­fec­tion or ab­nor­mal heart rhythm.

7. Per­sonal or fam­ily his­tory of stroke, heart at­tack or tran­sient is­chemic at­tack.

8. Be­ing age 55 or older.

Com­pli­ca­tions Treat­ment

or ex­po­sure to

A stroke can some­times cause tem­po­rary or per­ma­nent dis­abil­i­ties. 1. Paral­y­sis or loss of mus­cle move­ment. 2. Dif­fi­culty talk­ing or swal­low­ing. 3. Mem­ory loss or think­ing dif­fi­cul­ties. 4. Emo­tional prob­lems. Peo­ple who have had strokes may have more dif­fi­culty con­trol­ling their emo­tions.

5. Pain. Peo­ple who have had strokes may have pain, numb­ness or other strange sen­sa­tions in parts of their bod­ies af­fected by stroke.

1. Im­me­di­ate treat­ment may help min­i­mize the long-term ef­fects of stroke and im­prove re­cov­ery out­comes.

2. For acute is­chemic stroke, tis­sue plas­mino­gen ac­ti­va­tor (tPA) is given via in­tra­venous therapy (IV) and works by dis­solv­ing the clot and im­prov­ing blood flow to the part of the brain be­ing de­prived of blood flow.

3. Some is­chemic strokes are treated with small me­chan­i­cal de­vices that re­move or break up blood clots.

4. In treat­ing a hem­or­rhagic stroke, is to find the cause of bleed­ing in the brain and then con­trol it and also con­trol­ling high blood pres­sure and surgery to re­move the bleed­ing ves­sel and blood that has spilled into the brain.

5. Physiotherapy is also rec­om­mended to help im­prove stroke.

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