An es­ca­lat­ing eco­nomic threat to dairy in­dus­try

The Pak Banker - - Front Page -

Gul Gho­too is t ech­ni­cally known as Hem­or­rhagi c sep­ticemia (HS). It is a com­mon bac­te­rial disease of buf­falo, cat­tle and many other an­i­mal species and is cause of con­ster­na­tion for dairy farm­ers. It is caused by var­i­ous serotypes of Pas­teurella mul­to­cida in Pak­istan.

The sick an­i­mals show clin­i­cal signs such as in­creased tem­per­a­ture, sali­va­tion, serous nasal dis­charge with la­bored breath­ing and sub-mandibu­lar swelling that some time goes to neck and brisket re­gion. Frothy dis­charge from mouth leads to res­pi­ra­tory dis­tress, an­i­mal col­lapses and dies within 6-48 hours af­ter the first clin­i­cal sign ap­pears. Buf­falo calves or heifers rarely re­cover af­ter clin­i­cal signs ap­pear.

The disease pro­gres­sion mostly oc­curs in three forms. In the first form, there is in­crease in body tem­per­a­ture (40-41oC) and de­pres­sion. At ter­mi­nal stage, tem­per­a­ture drops to sub­nor­mal level few hours be­fore death.

In sec­ond form, there is in­creased res­pi­ra­tory rate, nasal dis­charge and sali­va­tions with sub-mandibu­lar swelling. In 3rd form, there is 100% fa­tal­ity.

There is acute res­pi­ra­tory dis­tress and an­i­mal be­comes re­cum­bent. Ter­mi­nal sep­ticemia leads to death. In Univer­sity of Ve­teri­nary and An­i­mal Sciences, La­hore, one Higher Ed­u­ca­tion Com­mis­sion (HEC) funded PhD scholar (Mrs. Noreen Sar­war) es­tab­lished molec­u­lar and nu­cleic acid based tech­niques for char­ac­ter­i­za­tion of Pas­teurella mul­to­cida serotypes.

She also worked on its dif­fer­ent as­pects for devel­op­ment of its ef­fec­tive and cost ef­fec­tive vac­cine. The or­gan­ism en­ters and mul­ti­plies in the ton- sils. The ful­mi­nat­ing sep­ticemia de­pends upon its cap­su­lar ma­te­rial. The sep­ticemia has se­vere ef­fects on res­pi­ra­tory tract, gas­troin­testi­nal tract and heart.

In­va­sion of bac­te­ria via mu­cosal ep­ithe­lial lay­ers causes rapid translo­ca­tion from res­pi­ra­tory tract to blood, liver, and spleen. Lipopolysac­cha­rides of the bac­te­rial cap­sule are key vir­u­lence mol­e­cules along with this other fac­tors e.g. toxin, pu­ta­tive sur­face ad­he­sions and iron ac­qui­si­tion pro­teins are also iden­ti­fied by di­rect and random mu­ta­ge­n­e­sis.

If you treat the in­fected an­i­mal with tetra­cy­cline, it usu­ally die within 5-10 min­utes post in­jec­tion.

It is as­sumed that LPS is re­leased all of sud­den due to death of the bac­te­ria, ac­ti­vate the phos­pho­lipid mol­e­cules of en­dothe­lial cy­to­plas­mic mem­branes and re­lease aracha­dinic acid that is fur­ther hy­drol­ysed through lipoxy­ge­nase into throm­box­anes or through car­boxy­ge­nase into prostaglandins PGE.

The both types of end prod­ucts are re­spon­si­ble for en­do­toxin shock.

The re­lease of th­ese prod­ucts can be blocked by NSAID such phenyl bu­tazene, as­pirine, etc. Keep­ing in view the above men­tioned pathogen­sis, the in­fected an­i­mals may be treated as be­low: Add cold water on the head of the an­i­mal; give in­jec­tion of phenylebu­ta­zone or as­pirin orally; give in­jec­tion of the an­tibi­otics of your choice.

Af­ter re­cov­ery, all an­i­mals on the farm can be vac­ci­nated with oil based HS vac­cine to in­duce im­muno­pro­phy­laxis.

Pak­istan has a cat­tle pop­u­la­tion of 17.7 mil­lion and a buf­falo pop­u­la­tion of 18.8 mil­lion, the lat­ter be­ing pro­por­tion­ately higher than most other coun­tries in the re­gion. HS is caus­ing eco­nomic loss to dairy farm­ers that are geared on the ba­sis of mor­tal­ity, cost of treat­ment, con­ster­na­tion.

Pak­istan ranks HS as a disease of con­sid­er­able eco­nomic im­por­tance, with 34.1 % of all deaths in sus­cep­ti­ble an­i­mals. In 1978, an­nual eco­nomic losses from HS were es­ti­mated as Rs 1.89 bil­lion.

Mrs Farhat Nazir Awan a PhD scholar in De­part­ment of Mi­cro­bi­ol­ogy, UVAS, La­hore, con­ducted a sur­vey and showed that HS, FMD and gas­troin­testi­nal dis­eases were main causes of eco­nomic losses.

The in­fec­tious dis­eases cause loss of Rs 19 bil­lion ev­ery year. In 1996, HS was caus­ing eco­nomic loss of Rs 2.7 bil­lion but cur­rently, it is caus­ing loss of worth Rs 6.8 bil­lion ev­ery year.

For ef­fec­tive con­trol of the disease, the causative agent may be iso­lated from sick or dead an­i­mals and be char­ac­ter­ized on the ba­sis of cul­tural, mor­pho­log­i­cal, bio­chem­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics and an­i­mal in­oc­u­la­tion tests.

The iso­late may be fur­ther char­ac­ter­ized on the ba­sis of mul­ti­plex PCR us­ing species, cap­su­lar, and so­matic anti­gen spe­cific primers for se­lect­ing the serotype for pro­duc­tion of com­mer­cial vac­cines.

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from Pakistan

© PressReader. All rights reserved.