Or­ganic pro­duc­tion of gar­den pea in the high­lands

Agriculture - - Contents -

GAR­DEN PEA ( Pisum sativum L.), known as “sweet pea” in Benguet is pri­mar­ily grown for its fresh pods, ed­i­ble green seeds, and is also used as dry seed crop. It is an an­nual legu­mi­nous crop and usu­ally self-pol­li­nated. The pods are about 7.62 cen­time­ters (cm) (or 3 inches) long and con­tain four to nine seeds that may be round, an­gu­lar, or wrin­kled (Ware and Swiader 2002). Gar­den pea is one of the most im­por­tant food legumes in the world pro­duc­tion and it can be grown prac­ti­cally in all parts of Benguet, with the cen­tral and south­ern towns as ma­jor pro­duc­tion ar­eas. It is one of the most ex­pen­sive veg­etable legume crops grown by Benguet farm­ers.

USES AND NU­TRI­TIONAL VALUE

Gar­den pea is a pop­u­lar in­gre­di­ent in ‘chop­suey’ and ‘pancit’. It can also be added in soups, sautés, and any dish with mush­rooms, bam­boo shoots, and shrimp. This veg­etable is mar­keted fresh, canned, or frozen while ripe dried peas are used whole, split, or made into flour. In some parts of the world, dried peas are con­sumed split as dahl, roasted, parched or boiled, and used in a grow­ing snack mar­ket. Gar­den pea is rich in pro­tein and vi­ta­mins (Ta­ble 1). It is con­sid­ered as the “poor man’s meat” es­pe­cially in de­vel­op­ing coun­tries where meat is ex­pen­sive (Purse­glove 1972).

VA­RI­ETIES

In the project “Va­ri­ety Eval­u­a­tion, On-farm Tri­als and Seed Pro­duc­tion of Or­ganic Veg­eta­bles in Cordillera Ad­min­is­tra­tive Re­gion”, crop va­ri­eties were se­lected and eval­u­ated un­der or­ganic pro­duc­tion sys­tems in Benguet. Per­for­mance of se­lected va­ri­eties were fur­ther eval­u­ated on-farm. Field tri­als were con­ducted in La Trinidad and Atok, Benguet across var­i­ous moun­tain zones and sea­sons (Tad-awan et al. 2013). Of the six gar­den pea va­ri­eties eval­u­ated, CGP 34 pro­duced the high­est fresh pod yield in eval­u­a­tion tri­als across lo­ca­tions. Chi­nese selec­tion has been rec­om­mended in high moun­tain zones. CGP34 and Chi­nese Selec­tion were the en­tries pre­ferred by most farm­ers. Be­tag is rec­om­mended in mid-moun­tain zones, although it is least pre­ferred by farm­ers. The cri­te­ria for selec­tion of gar­den pea en­tries for or­ganic pro­duc­tion are: nar­row and medium-sized pods, long shelflife, high yield, and re­sis­tance to pow­dery mildew (Ta­ble 2). Fig­ures 1-9 show CGP 34, Chi­nese selec­tion, and Be­tag plants, pods, and seeds.

SOIL AND CLI­MATE RE­QUIRE­MENTS

Gar­den pea re­quires well-drained, clay loam soils. It grows well in hu­mus-rich or vol­canic soil (Chap­man and Carter 1976). It also re­quires a rea­son­able level of soil fer­til­ity and a pH of 5.56.5. Pea crops can­not tol­er­ate very acidic soils or waterlogging.

Gar­den pea is a semi-tem­per­ate legume grown at about 1,500 me­ters (m) above sea level and fa­vors a cool cli­mate with a

tem­per­a­ture range of 10OC-18OC. In lower el­e­va­tions, the plants are less vig­or­ous and are more prone to dis­eases, in­clud­ing pow­dery mildew. More­over, their pods are more fi­brous.

LAND PREPA­RA­TION

Se­lect a well-drained area and with clay loam soil. Clean and pre­pare the area through weed­ing or by use of grub hoe or trowel. Con­struct plots with a di­men­sion of 1 m x 10 m or de­pend­ing on the farm size. Height of plot should be 15 cm dur­ing rainy sea­son and 10 cm dur­ing dry sea­son. Pul­ver­ize the soil to make it fri­able and with­out weeds.

PLANT­ING

Plant gar­den pea at the end of the rainy sea­son, start­ing from Oc­to­ber un­til De­cem­ber. Sow 2-3 seeds per hill at a depth of 2-5 cm. Dis­tance be­tween hills is 30 cm while dis­tance be­tween two rows is 25 cm.

PRO­DUC­TION COMPOST

“Or­ganic fer­til­izer is any prod­uct in solid or liq­uid form, of plant (ex­cept byprod­ucts from pe­tro­leum in­dus­tries) or an­i­mal ori­gin that has un­der­gone sub­stan­tial de­com­po­si­tion that can sup­ply avail­able nu­tri­ents to plants with a to­tal ni­tro­gen (N), phos­pho­rus (P), and potas­sium (K) of 5%-7%. This may be en­riched by mi­cro­bial in­oc­u­lants and nat­u­rally-oc­cur­ring min­er­als but no chem­i­cal or in­or­ganic fer­til­izer ma­te­rial has been added to the fin­ished prod­uct to af­fect the nu­tri­ent con­tent” (DABAFPS013).

Or­ganic fer­til­izer im­proves soil tilth and struc­ture; in­creases soil’s abil­ity to hold water and nu­tri­ents; sup­ports liv­ing soil or­gan­isms; helps dis­solve min­eral forms of nu­tri­ents; buf­fers soil from chem­i­cal im­bal­ances; pro­vides bi­o­log­i­cal con­trol of cer­tain soil pests; and helps re­turn or­ganic ma­te­ri­als to the soil.

“Compost/soil con­di­tioner is any prod­uct in solid or liq­uid form, of plant (ex­cept byprod­ucts from pe­tro­leum in­dus­tries) or an­i­mal ori­gin that has un­der­gone sub­stan­tial de­com­po­si­tion. It can sup­ply avail­able nu­tri­ents to plants with a to­tal NPK of 2.5%-5%. This may be en­riched by mi­cro­bial in­oc­u­lants and nat­u­ral­ly­oc­cur­ring min­er­als but no chem­i­cal or in­or­ganic fer­til­izer ma­te­rial has been added to the fin­ished prod­uct to af­fect the nu­tri­ent con­tent” (DA-BAFPS 2013). Compost and soil con­di­tioner are used in­ter­change­ably in the Philip­pine Na­tional Stan­dards on Or­ganic Fer­til­izer.

Biofer­til­iz­ers con­tain ben­e­fi­cial micro­organ­isms and hu­mus, which help im­prove the phys­i­cal, chem­i­cal, and bi­o­log­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil, which are es­sen­tial in crop pro­duc­tion.

In pro­duc­ing compost, the fol­low­ing pro­ce­dure can be fol­lowed (PCAARRD 2015). Con­struct com­post­ing shed us­ing lo­cally avail­able ma­te­ri­als and in a place far from the crop area and water re­sources. It should not be lo­cated in a land sub­ject to flood­ing. The min­i­mum equip­ment needed in pro­duc­ing or­ganic fer­til­iz­ers in­clude shred­der, drums for water stor­age, flat and pointed shov­els, Ja­panese hoe, wheel bar­row, sieve, and water hose.

The raw ma­te­ri­als used for or­ganic fer­til­izer pro­duc­tion un­der BSU con­di­tions are dried chicken ma­nure, saw­dust or coco saw­dust, wild sun­flower, and Tri­cho­derma (Fig. 10). Dried chicken ma­nure is pre­ferred over fresh chicken ma­nure. Fresh chicken ma­nure con­tains con­tam­i­nants and harm­ful micro­organ­isms and emits foul odor. Saw­dust or coco saw­dust from lum­ber that are not chem­i­cally-treated is rec­om­mended. This ma­te­rial is an ex­cel­lent source of re­cal­ci­trant car­bon in in­or­ganic fer­til­izer. Re­cal­ci­trant car­bon has been found sta­ble in soil, thus it aids in main­tain­ing good soil struc­ture. Wild sun­flower is known to be rich in ni­tro­gen. Adding it to the pile in­creases the ni­tro­gen con­tent of the or­ganic fer­til­izer. It is found ev­ery­where in the place and avail­able al­most all year-round. It is use­ful be­cause it adds to the or­ganic mat­ter con­tent of the compost. Tri­cho­derma is a fun­gus found to be an ef­fi­cient de­com­poser be­cause it en­hances the com­post­ing process. It is iso­lated from the soil, de­cay­ing or­ganic wood, and other forms of plant or­ganic ma­te­rial.

STEPS IN PRO­DUC­ING COMPOST

1. Col­lect raw ma­te­ri­als. 2. Shred the raw ma­te­ri­als to 1-inch or 2-3 cm di­am­e­ter or smaller to en­hance the de­com­po­si­tion, specif­i­cally of tough and fi­brous plant tis­sues. Shred the wild sun­flow­ers with stems of up to 2-3 cm to pro­vide a greater sur­face area for de­com­po­si­tion. To en­hance de­com­po­si­tion, pul­ver­ize the chicken ma­nure and saw­dust, par­tic­u­larly those that turned into lumps. 3. Pile the shred­ded raw ma­te­ri­als layer by layer (Fig. 11). Pre­pare a maximum of six lay­ers (or 1.5 m thick) of ma­te­ri­als. The ra­tio of raw ma­te­ri­als is 50% chicken ma­nure, 25% saw­dust or coco saw­dust, and 25% wild sun­flower. A layer of saw­dust or coco saw­dust is usu­ally spread first to ab­sorb ex­cess water. Then chicken ma­nure is piled on top of the saw­dust. Above the layer of chicken ma­nure is an­other layer of saw­dust or coco saw­dust, af­ter which a layer of the shred­ded wild sun­flower is spread. Tri­cho­derma is usu­ally spread as thin layer.

Stack the lay­ers un­til the pile reaches 1.5 m high. There is no need to put ash/lime or bam­boo breathers.

Mon­i­tor the tem­per­a­ture of the compost pile with a ther­mome­ter (0-200) OC with a long probe. The tem­per­a­ture should be main­tained be­tween 40OC and 60OC for 3 weeks.

4. Water each layer of raw ma­te­ri­als af­ter pil­ing (Fig. 12). There­after, water the pile reg­u­larly, at least 2-3 times a week. Mois­ture con­tent is best be­tween 40% and 60%. Avoid adding too much water into the pile to pre­vent anaer­o­bic de­com­po­si­tion. Foul odors are from anaer­o­bic ac­tiv­ity and in­di­cate lack of oxy­gen. If the pile be­comes too wet, in­crease turn­ing fre­quency and/or add fi­brous ma­te­ri­als to the pile to re­duce the mois­ture con­tent and in­crease oxy­gen.

5. Turn the compost pile from top to bot­tom af­ter two weeks from pil­ing. Re­peat this ev­ery week there­after un­til the pile has fully de­com­posed. Mix the pile to break down tough and fi­brous plant ma­te­ri­als ef­fi­ciently. By do­ing this, the mois­ture and or­gan­isms that help break­down the raw ma­te­ri­als are dis­trib­uted evenly in the com­post­ing ma­te­ri­als.

If fun­gus compost ac­ti­va­tor such as Tri­cho­derma is ap­plied, the pile takes 1-2 months to de­com­pose. How­ever, the de­com­po­si­tion process with­out the fun­gus ac­ti­va­tor takes 2-3 months.

PRO­DUC­TION OF OR­GANIC PLANT SUP­PLE­MENT

“Or­ganic plant sup­ple­ment is any com­pound of or­ganic ori­gin in liq­uid or solid form which in low con­cen­tra­tion pro­motes or mod­i­fies phys­i­o­log­i­cal pro­cesses in plants. To­tal NPK is 0.5%-2.5% and may con­tain ben­e­fi­cial micro­organ­isms, mi­cronu­tri­ents, and plant growth reg­u­la­tors. Th­ese plant sup­ple­ments in­clude, but are not lim­ited to fer­mented plant juice, fer­mented fruit juice, fish amino acid, fish emul­sion, sea­weed ex­tracts, vermi tea, compost tea, and the like” (DA-BAFPS 2013).

The BSU project on “Or­ganic Fer­til­iz­ers and Mi­cro­bials for Im­proved Soil Fer­til­ity in Or­ganic Veg­eta­bles Pro­duc­tion in the Cordillera Ad­min­is­tra­tive Re­gion”, ex­per­i­mented on var­i­ous or­ganic ma­te­ri­als and came up with for­mu­la­tions, which pro­vided nu­tri­ents that are im­por­tant dur­ing the plant’s veg­e­ta­tive and re­pro­duc­tive stages. The sup­ple­ments con­tain N and other es­sen­tial macro- and mi­cronu­tri­ents in suf­fi­cient amounts and as­sim­i­l­able forms (BSU-PCAARRD 2013). The pro­ce­dure adopted is as fol­lows: 1. Use legume seeds such as soy­bean and bush bean seeds to pro­duce fer­mented liq­uid or­ganic plant food sup­ple­ment. Th­ese seeds pro­vide higher ni­tro­gen con­tent. 2. Soak the seeds in water for about one hour. 3. Boil the seeds for 30 min­utes and then let them cool be­fore grind­ing. 4. Use a blender to grind the boiled seeds. 5. Fer­ment the ma­te­rial us­ing a ra­tio of 1:1:1 of ground seeds, mo­lasses, and water. Add one cup dry yeast per kilo­gram of ground seeds. 6. Fer­ment the mix­ture for a month. 7. Af­ter fer­men­ta­tion, fil­ter the mix­ture through a white cot­ton cloth. 8. Boil the fil­trate at 80OC and then al­low to sim­mer. Once cooled, the fil­trate is ready to be ap­plied.

PREPA­RA­TION OF LIQ­UID TRI­CHO­DERMA KONINGII

T. koningii is a ben­e­fi­cial fun­gus. It was iso­lated from Benguet soils in 1997 and later de­vel­oped as a biofer­til­izer and bi­o­log­i­cal con­trol agent af­ter se­ries of ex­per­i­ments. Presently, the fun­gus is be­ing used in Benguet as biofer­til­izer and as bi­o­log­i­cal con­trol agent against soil-borne plant pathogens. Galian and Nag­pala (2006), demon­strated that T. koningii ap­plied as biofer­til­izer n gar­den pea at rates of 10 g, 15 g, 20 g, 25 g, and 30 g im­proved plant height with higher fresh and ovendry weight, higher yield, longer pods, and big­ger rot nod­ules (im­proved nodu­la­tion). The same gar­den pea plants ap­plied with T. koningii also pro­duced big­ger size of root nod­ules. As bi­o­log­i­cal con­trol agent, gar­den pea plants ap­plied with T. koningii re­sulted in low Fusar­ium wilt in­fec­tion.

The fun­gus is pre­pared or grown in ar­ti­fi­cial me­dia potato dex­trose agar (PDA) in the lab­o­ra­tory for 5-7 days, af­ter which the sur­face growth is care­fully scraped and mixed thor­oughly in 16 liters (L) water. Af­ter thor­ough mix­ing, the liq­uid prepa­ra­tion of T. koningii can be ap­plied onto the soil us­ing a knap­sack sprayer. The ben­e­fi­cial fun­gus is pro­duced or pre­pared at the Plant Health Clinic of Benguet State Univer­sity.

AP­PLI­CA­TION OF TRI­CHO­DERMA KONINGII IN FIELD PLOTS

Be­fore ap­ply­ing the compost, the liq­uid Tri­cho­derma can be di­rectly sprayed in field plots and thor­oughly mixed with the soil. This is a prac­ti­cal way of ap­ply­ing the ben­e­fi­cial fun­gus in the soil. It is also im­por­tant to moisten the soil with water be­fore or af­ter ap­pli­ca­tion for the fun­gus to ger­mi­nate. Gar­den pea seeds can be sown in treated plots, two weeks af­ter T. koningii ap­pli­ca­tion.

T. koningii is known to help in the sol­u­bi­liza­tion of nu­tri­ents present in the soil. Treat­ing the field plots with Tri­cho­derma will also pro­tect the roots against soil-borne pathogens such as Fusar­ium oxys­po­rum f. sp. pisi caus­ing root rot and wilt of gar­den pea in the field.

AP­PLI­CA­TION OF COMPOST AND OR­GANIC PLANT SUP­PLE­MENT Be­fore sow­ing gar­den pea seeds, uni­formly ap­ply 1.5 kilo­grams (kg) compost per 5 square me­ters (m2) area in fur­rows or in hills. Thor­oughly mix the compost with the soil. Ap­ply an­other 1.5 kg of compost per hill near or around the base of the crop, 10-15 days af­ter seedling emer­gence and then cover this with soil. Ap­pli­ca­tion at this stage is nec­es­sary to con­tin­u­ously pro­vide the es­sen­tial nu­tri­ents needed by the crop.

Be­fore hilling up, which is usu­ally done 30 days af­ter trans­plant­ing, ap­ply an­other 2.5 kg/5 m2 of compost as side dress­ing near or around the plants, then cover it with soil.

Ap­ply liq­uid or­ganic plant sup­ple­ment 15 days af­ter trans­plant­ing at the rate of 60 mL per liter of water. This can be done ev­ery week to pro­vide the crop with ad­di­tional nu­tri­ents. The liq­uid or­ganic plant sup­ple­ment is ei­ther ap­plied as drench at the base of the crop or as fo­liage spray.

Fig­ure 14 shows the dif­fer­ent or­ganic prod­ucts that BSU de­vel­oped, tested, and used in grow­ing or­ganic gar­den pea.

IR­RI­GA­TION

Ir­ri­gate the crop us­ing a sprin­kler or by man­ual wa­ter­ing, 2-3 times a week un­til har­vest­ing pe­riod. Mon­i­tor soil mois­ture lev­els closely and ir­ri­gate when nec­es­sary.

WEED­ING

Re­move weeds early to pre­vent com­pe­ti­tion with the crop. Pull the weeds by hand or by us­ing a hoe and cul­ti­vate the soil in be­tween the rows. Con­tinue to re­move the weeds un­til the plants reach its har­vest­ing stage. Weed­ing will help min­i­mize in­sect pest pop­u­la­tion such as leaf miner.

HILLING-UP

Prac­tice hilling up 25-30 days af­ter sow­ing. Ap­ply or­ganic compost in be­tween rows then cover the base of the plants with soil. The ap­plied compost will sup­ple­ment the nu­tri­ent needs of the plants dur­ing flow­er­ing and pod set­ting.

TRELLISING

Pro­vide trel­lis 20 days af­ter the seeds have emerged. Blind the plants with plas­tic twine to al­low the plant to cling to the trel­lis. This pre­vents the plant from lodg­ing. Con­tinue to train the plants with twine un­til they reach maximum height.

IN­SECT PEST AND DIS­EASE MAN­AGE­MENT

Ap­pli­ca­tion of good cul­tural man­age­ment is one way of prevent­ing sever­ity of in­sect pest and dis­ease oc­cur­rence in the farm. Such cul­tural man­age­ment in­clude plant­ing in healthy soil, us­ing re­sis­tant va­ri­eties, crop ro­ta­tion, good soil tillage, time of plant­ing, and weed man­age­ment. Pre­sented be­low are the in­sect pests and dis­eases of gar­den pea and their man­age­ment.

MAN­AGE­MENT OPTIONS FOR MA­JOR IN­SECT PESTS OF GAR­DEN PEAS

Pod Borer ( Maruca vi­t­rata ( tes­tu­lalis) Geyer)

De­scrip­tion Full-grown larva is 30-40 mm long, cream to green­ish-yel­low or bright green, with rows of dark brown spots along the back. The head is dark brown to black.

Dam­age The larva is the de­struc­tive stage. It de­stroys buds, flow­ers, and pods. Dam­aged pods show small en­try holes on the sur­face.

Man­age­ment Options ● Trap adults by putting light sources at night in the area.

● Ap­ply bioin­sec­ti­cides such as gar­lic + yel­low gin­ger + chilli ex­tract. Use vine­gar as ex­trac­tant. Th­ese bioin­sec­ti­cides can be ap­plied singly or in com­bi­na­tion. To pre­pare the bioin­sec­ti­cides, slice the gar­lic cloves, gin­ger rhi­zomes, and chilli pep­per fruits and mix with vine­gar which serves as ex­trac­tant in a 1:1 ra­tio. The so­lu­tion should be trans­ferred to clean con­tainer with cover. Al­low the so­lu­tion to fer­ment in 14 days. The liq­uid will then be fil­tered us­ing a cheese­cloth and stored in a ster­ile bot­tle with cover. The fer­mented ex­tract can be sprayed at a ra­tio of 1:16 di­lu­tion. Spray­ing is done at 7-14 days in­ter­val and starts at the flow­er­ing stage of peas. Spray­ing should be done in the early morn­ing or late af­ter­noon to avoid pos­si­ble degra­da­tion or burn­ing due to high tem­per­a­ture.

● Ap­ply nu­cle­opoly­he­dro­sis virus (NPV) in liq­uid for­mu­la­tion late in the af­ter­noon or early morn­ing at one NPV-in­fected cut­worm per liter of water. Prepa­ra­tion of NPV can be done by col­lect­ing NPV-in­fected cut­worm (worms that are limp or droop­ing whitish and hang­ing up­side down in the plant) and mix­ing them with a lit­tle dis­tilled water. For ev­ery in­fected cut­worm, 1 liter of water is needed. The in­fected lar­vae must be grinded or mac­er­ated to re­lease the virus par­ti­cles us­ing a blender or a mor­tar and pes­tle. The so­lu­tion must be fil­tered us­ing a cheese­cloth and an equal amount of 10% ethanol is added to con­trol the growth of bac­te­ria that causes the foul odor of the sus­pen­sion. The pre­pared NPV sus­pen­sion is sprayed onto the plant at an in­ter­val of seven days. Spray­ing be­gins dur­ing the flow­er­ing stage.

● Hand­pick the lar­vae and pu­pae dur­ing the early stages of in­fes­ta­tion.

Aphids ( Myzus per­si­cae, Aphis crac­civora, Li­pa­phis erysime, and Acyr­tosiphon pisum Harris)

De­scrip­tion The body is pear­shaped, with long, tiny legs and an­ten­nae. They have nee­dle-like mouth­parts that are used for pierc­ing and suck­ing plant juice. Aphids are green­ish, brown­ish, or black­ish, de­pend­ing on the species and kind of food they eat. They re­pro­duce when there is much food and even with­out males. If there are no males, the mother lays nymphs but if there are males, then the mother lays eggs.

Dam­age The nymphs and adults are both de­struc­tive to plants. They stay on the shoots or young leaves, make small holes, and sip the plant juice. The hon­ey­dew they pro­duce at­tracts fun­gus (sooty mold) that rapidly cov­ers the leaves.

Man­age­ment Options ● Use yel­low pan traps with water.

● Ap­ply bioin­sec­tides such as gar­lic + yel­low gin­ger + chili us­ing vine­gar as ex­trac­tant singly or in com­bi­na­tion. To pre­pare the bioin­sec­ti­cides, slice gar­lic cloves, gin­ger rhi­zomes, and chili pep­per fruits and mix with vine­gar which serves as ex­trac­tant with cover. Al­low the so­lu­tion to fer­ment in 14 days. Fil­ter the liq­uid us­ing a cheese­cloth and store in a ster­ile bot­tle with cover. The fer­mented ex­tract can be sprayed at a ra­tio of 1:16 di­lu­tion. Spray­ing is done at 7-14 days in­ter­val start­ing at one month af­ter plant­ing. Spray­ing should be done in the early morn­ing or late af­ter­noon to avoid pos­si­ble degra­da­tion or burn­ing due to high tem­per­a­ture.

● Use NPV in both liq­uid and pow­der for­mu­la­tions at one in­fected cut­worm per liter of water. Spray­ing should be done early in the morn­ing or late in the af­ter­noon.

● Spray Mokosaku or wood vine­gar (2 tbsp/16 L of water). Mokosaku can be ob­tained from the Mu­nic­i­pal Agri­cul­tural of­fices in each mu­nic­i­pal­ity of Benguet and some or­ganic farm­ers.

● Re­move the af­fected plant parts and burn.

● Use high pres­sure sprin­kle ir­ri­ga­tion to knock the in­sects off the plants.

● Plant in­sect re­pel­lant crops such as marigold, zin­nia, cos­mos, onions, corn, and bush beans along bor­ders to main­tain pop­u­la­tion of nat­u­ral preda­tors.

Leaf Miner ( Liri­omyza huido­bren­sis Blan­chard)

De­scrip­tion The adults are brown­ish two-winged flies with yel­low stripes in the body, 2-2.5 mm long. The lar­vae are elon­gated, cream, and be­come cream yel­low when about to pu­pate. Dam­age The lar­vae tun­nels made by the lar­vae be­tween the lower and up­per leaf epi­der­mis in­ter­fere with pho­to­syn­the­sis and growth of the plants and make them look unattrac­tive.

Man­age­ment Options ● Place sticky, yel­low traps in be­tween plots.

● Ap­ply bioin­sec­tides: ex­tract of gar­lic + yel­low gin­ger + chili us­ing vine­gar as ex­trac­tant. Th­ese bioin­sec­ti­cides can be ap­plied singly or in com­bi­na­tion. To pre­pare the bioin­sec­ti­cide, slice gar­lic cloves, gin­ger rhi­zomes and chilli pep­per fruits and mix with vine­gar which serves as ex­trac­tant in a 1:1 ra­tio. Trans­fer the so­lu­tion to a clean con­tainer with cover. Al­low the so­lu­tion to fer­ment in 14 days. Fil­ter the liq­uid us­ing a cheese­cloth and store in a ster­ile bot­tle with cover. The fer­mented ex­tract can be sprayed at a ra­tio of 1:16 di­lu­tion. Spray­ing is done at 7-14 days in­ter­val start­ing at three weeks af­ter plant­ing. Spray­ing should be done in the early morn­ing or late af­ter­noon to avoid pos­si­ble degra­da­tion or burn­ing due to high tem­per­a­ture.

● Ap­ply NPV both in liq­uid and pow­der for­mu­la­tions (one NPV-in­fected cut­worm per liter of water). Spray­ing should be done early in the morn­ing or late in the af­ter­noon.

MAN­AGE­MENT OPTIONS FOR MA­JOR DIS­EASES OF GAR­DEN PEAS

Fusar­ium Wilt ( Fusar­ium oxys­po­rum Sch­lecht)

De­scrip­tion Fusar­ium wilt is an im­por­tant soil-borne dis­ease of gar­den pea. Maximum prof­itabil­ity in the crop is not at­tained if in­fected with Fusar­ium wilt dis­ease. It af­fects the vas­cu­lar tis­sues of the plant; in­ter­feres with water con­duc­tion and pro­duces tox­ins, which cause wilt­ing. In­fected plants wilt and even­tu­ally die with­out reach­ing the pro­duc­tive stage. Ac­cord­ing to Smykal et. Al. (2012) about 60% yield loss is in­curred due to Fusar­ium wilt.

Symp­toms Curl­ing of leaves is one of the first symp­toms no­tice­able in plants af­fected with Fusar­ium wilt, fol­lowed by leaves and stems turn­ing light green. Since the fun­gus af­fects the vas­cu­lar tis­sues, wilt­ing is ob­served es­pe­cially when tem­per­a­tures are high. As the dis­ease de­vel­ops, dis­col­oration of root tis­sues is ob­served. A cross sec­tion of the stem right above the root sys­tem would re­veal a pink­ish to red vas­cu­lar tis­sues. Yel­low­ing starts from the lower leaves to the plant tip, which progress to the stems

that be­come some­what rigid then fol­lowed by death of the plant. Dis­ease de­vel­op­ment de­pends on the pre­vail­ing weather con­di­tions. If plants are af­fected at an early stage of plant growth, it is likely that the plant would die even be­fore reach­ing the pro­duc­tive stage. When af­fected dur­ing a later stage, the plant may sur­vive but yield per­for­mance is poor.

Man­age­ment Options ● The use of re­sis­tant va­ri­eties such as Be­tag, CGP 110 and CGP 154 is the best way to man­age Fusar­ium wilt. CGP 59, 11, and 34 have in­ter­me­di­ate re­sis­tance to Fusar­ium wilt.

● To en­sure pro­tec­tion of the plant and to pre­vent mul­ti­pli­ca­tion, drench the soil with gar­lic ex­tract pre­pared us­ing straw­berry vine­gar as ex­trac­tant be­fore plant­ing.

Pow­dery Mildew ( Erysiphe pisi)

De­scrip­tion Pow­dery mildew is a se­ri­ous dis­ease caus­ing se­vere losses in gar­den pea pro­duc­tion. It oc­curs fre­quently and cov­ers a large area of the plant sur­face. Once plant is in­fected, its pro­cesses are ham­pered, thereby af­fect­ing plant growth and de­vel­op­ment. A 70% yield loss in in­di­vid­ual crops has been at­trib­uted to the dis­ease.

Symp­toms In­fected plants exhibit white pow­dery growth on leaf, stem, and pod sur­face. This pow­dery growth is eas­ily rubbed off. It usu­ally oc­curs as white spots on the sur­face of older leaves, which then rapidly cover the en­tire leaf sur­face and spread up­wards to­wards the stem, younger leaves, and pods. Leaves even­tu­ally wither and dry up.

Man­age­ment Options ● Cul­tural Con­trol - Use re­sis­tant va­ri­eties such as Be­tag and CGP 34. - Plant early. - Main­tain farm hy­giene.

● Bi­o­log­i­cal Con­trol - Use EYCOG, a mix­ture of egg yolk + canola oil + gar­lic ex­tract. This is pre­pared by mix­ing 1 egg yolk, juice from 30 g gar­lic cloves ex­tracted us­ing a juicer, and 10 mL canola oil. Spray gar­den pea plants with 72 mL/16 L water be­fore the on­set of the dis­ease and re­peat at 7-day in­ter­val. Shorten spray­ing in­ter­val if the dis­ease pres­sure is high. - Use Bacil­lus sub­tilis. Spray 1 bot­tle (50 mL)/L water at 7-day in­ter­val. Shorten the spray­ing in­ter­val if the dis­ease pres­sure is high. Spay­ing should be done prefer­ably in the morn­ing or late in the af­ter­noon. - Process of mass pro­duc­ing B. sub­tilis: 1. Grow B. sub­tilis in test tubes con­tain­ing nu­tri­ent agar and in­cu­bate for 48 hours. 2. Pre­pare the bac­te­rial sus­pen­sion and in­oc­u­late into the ster­ile chay­ote broth at 0.1 mL/bot­tle. Pre­pare chay­ote broth through the fol­low­ing steps: a. Boil 300 g peeled and chopped chay­ote in one-liter dis­tilled water. b. Add 50 g ta­ble sugar then fil­ter. c. Dis­pense 50 mL of the so­lu­tion in may­on­naise bot­tles and au­to­clave at 15 psi for 15-30 min­utes. 3. In­cu­bate the in­oc­u­lated bot­tles at room tem­per­a­ture for an­other 48 hours while oc­ca­sion­ally mix­ing the broth and bac­te­rial growth us­ing a me­chan­i­cal shaker (i.e., 30 min­utes in the morn­ing and 30 min­utes in the af­ter­noon). 4. Blend the mix­ture to ho­mog­e­nize and then strain.

This pro­ce­dure is usu­ally done at the lab­o­ra­to­ries of aca­demic and re­search in­sti­tu­tions due to un­avail­abil­ity of equip­ment in other places. The bac­te­rial sus­pen­sions are avail­able by or­der at the Hor­ti­cul­ture Lab­o­ra­tory of BSU. HAR­VEST­ING Har­vest the pods at 55-60 days af­ter sow­ing or when the pods are fully green and well de­vel­oped but still ten­der. The seeds should be near full size and should not have be­gun to harden. Hand­pick the pods be­fore the seeds are fully ma­tured. Some grow­ers do only one pick­ing while other grow­ers have two or five pick­ings, de­pend­ing on pod ma­tu­rity. Fre­quent har­vest­ing is nec­es­sary. Keep the pro­duce un­der shade and pack in plas­tic crates. Pods can be stored for 1-2 weeks at 0OC (32OF) and 95%-98% rel­a­tive hu­mid­ity.

COST AND RE­TURN

Ta­ble 3 shows that pro­duc­tion of dif­fer­ent va­ri­eties of gar­den pea dur­ing the dry sea­son of 2012-2013 re­sulted in net in­comes rang­ing from R20,000 to R60,000. Returns on cash ex­pense (ROCE) ranged from 47% to 134%. (PCAARRD IN­FOR­MA­TION BUL­LETIN)

Ta­ble 2. Rec­om­mended gar­den pea va­ri­eties for or­ganic pro­duc­tion.

Fig. 4. Plants of Chi­nese selec­tion.

Fig. 7. Plants of Be­tag.

Fig. 1. Plants of CGP 34.

Fig. 6. Seeds of Chi­nese selec­tion.

Fig. 9. Seeds of Be­tag.

Fig. 3. Seeds of CGP 34.

Fig. 5. Pods of Chi­nese selec­tion.

Fig. 8. Pods of Be­tag.

Fig. 2. Pods of CGP 34.

Fig. 10. Raw ma­te­ri­als (sun­flower and saw­dust) in the pro­duc­tion of or­ganic fer­til­izer/ compost.

Fig. 11. Pil­ing of raw ma­te­ri­als.

Fig. 13. Five-day old pure cul­ture of Tri­cho­derma koningii.

Fig. 12. Wa­ter­ing of compost pile.

Fig. 14. BSU liq­uid or­ganic plant sup­ple­ment (a), TRI-BIO ( Tri­cho­derma koningii) mi­cro­bial in­oc­u­lant (b), and grow­ers’ compost with and with­out bio-char (c and d).

*To­tal cost of pro­duc­tion in­cludes the cost of plant­ing ma­te­ri­als, trel­lis ma­te­rial, or­ganic pes­ti­cides (Mokusako), and or­ganic fer­til­izer. Sell­ing price of fresh pods is based on R200/ kg. Ta­ble 3. Cost and re­turn of or­ganic pro­duc­tion of gar­den pea in dif­fer­ent lo­ca­tions, 2011-2012 dry sea­son crop­ping.

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