The re­la­tion­ship be­tween so­ci­ol­ogy and de­mog­ra­phy

Panay News - - METRO -  By Ilyn F. Tabaquirao, Na­sunugan, Dao, Capiz

I N ONE of my other ar­ti­cles, I have men­tioned over­pop­u­la­tion and con­ges­tion as pas­sive Philip­pine prob­lems. I con­sid­ered them pas­sive in the sense that though they are con­sid­ered so­cial prob­lems, they seem to earn less re­sponse from the gov­ern­ment these days. They may not see it as an ur­gent prob­lem that needs to be solved but I fear the days that we wake up in the base­ment and too many lev­els of build­ings are on top of us, or in­stead of dream­ing for more trees, we will not be able to see any­thing any­more.

As a re­fresher, so­ci­ol­ogy is the study of hu­man so­cial re­la­tion­ships and in­sti­tu­tions.

Its sub­ject mat­ter is di­verse, rang­ing from crime to re­li­gion, from the fam­ily to the state, from the di­vi­sions of race and so­cial class to the shared be­liefs of a com­mon cul­ture, and from so­cial sta­bil­ity to rad­i­cal change in whole so­ci­eties.

So­ci­ol­ogy i s an ex­cit­ing and il­lu­mi­nat­ing field of study that an­a­lyzes and ex­plains im­por­tant mat­ters in our per­sonal lives, our com­mu­ni­ties, and the world.

De­mog­ra­phy, on t he other hand, is the sci­ence of pop­u­la­tions. De­mog­ra­phers seek to un­der­stand pop­u­la­tion dy­nam­ics by in­ves­ti­gat­ing three main de­mo­graphic pro­cesses: birth, mi­gra­tion, and ag­ing (in­clud­ing death).

To­day, there is grow­ing in­ter­est among the pub­lic in de­mog­ra­phy, as “de­mo­graphic change” has be­come the sub­ject of po­lit­i­cal de­bates in many de­vel­oped coun­tries.

Most of these coun­tries have birth rates be­low the re­place­ment level of 2.1 chil­dren per wo­man and, at the same time, life ex­pectancy has been ris­ing con­sid­er­ably and con­tin­ues to rise – a de­vel­op­ment some­times called “the ag­ing of so­ci­eties.”

So­ci­ol­ogy stud­ies so­ci­ety as a whole sys­tem while de­mog­ra­phy stud­ies it as a type. The de­mo­graphic study is sta­tis­ti­cal while the so­ci­o­log­i­cal study is the­o­ret­i­cal as well as qual­i­ta­tive.

The in­ti­mate re­la­tion­ship be­tween so­ci­ol­ogy and de­mog­ra­phy does not mean that both are the same.

Kings­ley Davis, how­ever, has given the fol­low­ing points of re­la­tion­ship be­tween de­mog­ra­phy and so­ci­ol­ogy:

(1) Fer­til­ity is con­nected with the at­ti­tudes and so­cial in­sti­tu­tions.

(2) Pop­u­la­tion changes are re­lated to so­cial and eco­nomic changes

( 3) The la­bor force is con­cerned with the pop­u­la­tion struc­ture and so­cial or­ga­ni­za­tion.

( 4) The fam­ily i s re­lated to de­mo­graphic be­hav­ior.

He dis­cussed two other ar­eas of study where so­ci­ol­ogy and de­mog­ra­phy are com­bined. These are in­ter­nal mi­gra­tion and in­ter­na­tional mi­gra­tion.

De­mog­ra­phy is a prin­ci­ple el­e­ment of so­ci­ol­ogy for the dis­cus­sion of fam­ily, city, mi­nori­ties and, in­dus­trial so­ci­ol­ogy. It also study the cul­ture, so­cial­iza­tion, so­cial strat­i­fi­ca­tion, pri­mary groups and col­lec­tive be­hav­ior, com­bined, pop­u­la­tion not only de­pends upon birth rate and death rate but it is also in­flu­enced by so­cial­iza­tion, ed­u­ca­tion and so­cial sys­tem.

Pop­u­la­tion is the group of so­cial be­ings whereas so­ci­ol­ogy is the study of so­ci­ety, formed of pop­u­la­tion. Pop­u­la­tion growth is de­pen­dent on the re­la­tion­ship be­tween birth rate and death rate. Birth rate de­pends upon sex­ual in­ter­course be­tween male and fe­male, which in turn is de­ter­mined by cus­toms, tra­di­tions and so­cial norms. There­fore, pop­u­la­tion growth is not merely bi­o­log­i­cal phe­nom­ena but also a so­cial one. ( Paid ar­ti­cle)

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