United Na­tions de­vel­op­ment goals

Sun.Star Baguio - - Opinion -

IN Septem­ber of 2015, the United Na­tions adopted 17 Sus­tatain­able De­vel­op­ment Goals (SDGs), each with spe­cific tar­gets that are to be achieved within a 15-year pe­riod or by 2030.

The 17 SDGs in­clude: the erad­i­ca­tion of poverty; zero hunger; good health and well­be­ing; qual­ity ed­u­ca­tion; gen­der equal­ity; clean wa­ter and san­i­ta­tion; af­ford­able and clean en­ergy; de­cent work and eco­nomic growth; in­dus­try; in­no­va­tion and in­fra­struc­ture; re­duced in­equal­i­ties; sus­tain­able cities and com­mu­ni­ties; re­spon­si­ble con­sump­tion and pro­duc­tion; cli­mate ac­tion; life be­low wa­ter; life on land; peace, jus­tice and strong in­sti­tu­tions; and, part­ner­ship for the goals.

I asked some young peo­ple to write about one or sev­eral of these SDGs and con­nect them to eco­nom­ics and their own per­sonal ex­pe­ri­ences. I am just so proud of them that at that young age, they can be very an­a­lyt­i­cal and crit­i­cal. I will be fea­tur­ing their es­says here in this col­umn. Here are the first two.

-o0oThis first es­say is writ­ten by Hazel (Yerin) Choi and she writes about NO POVERTY.

I think that this goal is the most im­por­tant goal since there are many peo­ple in the Philip­pines who still lives in poverty. Fur­ther­more, the Gawad Kalinga group has in­spired me to think that it is ur­gent to re­duce the num­ber of peo­ple in poverty in the Philip­pines.

In eco­nom­ics, poverty is a con­di­tion where peo­ple have very low or no in­come. Poverty even­tu­ally leads to un­equal dis­tri­bu­tion of in­come when it is not re­solved or when the num­ber of peo­ple in poverty is not re­duced.

There are two types of poverty: ab­so­lute poverty and rel­a­tive poverty. Ab­so­lute poverty is when the ba­sic needs are not met and the in­di­vid­ual lives with lesser than $1.25 a day while rel­a­tive poverty is when the in­di­vid­ual re­ceives a lit­tle lesser in­come com­pared to the av­er­age in­come level of the coun­try. Both types of poverty are caused by sev­eral fac­tors.

One fac­tor which causes poverty is when an in­di­vid­ual is born in a low in­come house­hold. This will cause the in­di­vid­ual to have no op­por­tu­nity at first and may give the no in­cen­tive to earn money. This leads to a poverty cy­cle where the poor stays poor.

An­other fac­tor, which causes poverty, is when an in­di­vid­ual has no or un­fin­ished ed­u­ca­tion. With­out ed­u­ca­tion, peo­ple won’t be able to be em­ployed or won’t know how to use money wisely.

Fur­ther­more, un­em­ploy­ment also can be a fac­tor which causes poverty. Un­em­ploy­ment is when an in­di­vid­ual is will­ing to work but is out work and search­ing for a work. When an in­di­vid­ual is un­em­ployed, they won’t be able to sta­bly earn money. This will even­tu­ally lead to the in­abil­ity to meet the ba­sic needs of hu­man such as shelter, food, wa­ter, and fur­ther­more.

Lastly, poverty can be caused by nat­u­ral dis­as­ters. In the Philip­pines, there are a lot of deadly ty­phoons which oc­curs in a year. These ty­phoons can lead to the de­struc­tion of houses and lead to short­age of food and wa­ter. Even­tu­ally, this also leads to poverty.

In or­der to suc­cess­fully re­solve or re­duce the is­sue with poverty, the gov­ern­ment can use two so­lu­tions. The first so­lu­tion is to im­pose min­i­mum wage. Min­i­mum wage is when the gov­ern­ment sets the wage above the equi­lib­rium.

Since peo­ple stay in poverty when they earn low in­come, by set­ting a min­i­mum wage and in­creas­ing the wage, it will be able to re­duce the peo­ple who stay in poverty. This will give an op­por­tu­nity to the lower in­come earn­ers.

How­ever, there are neg­a­tive as­pects of this so­lu­tion. When min­i­mum wages are im­posed, the com­pa­nies have to pay more to their em­ploy­ees, which lead to the in­crease of their cost. When the cost in­creases, the com­pa­nies are given the in­cen­tive to

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