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Sun.Star Pampanga - - PERSPECTIVE! -

ne of the tar­gets in im­prov­ing ed­u­ca­tion is the so-called School-Based Man­age­ment (SBM). Schools from var­i­ous dis­tricts in the di­vi­sion are cur­rently work­ing out for the ac­cred­i­ta­tion on the lev­els of SBM. This will merit the per­for­mance of the school and as­sess how sig­nif­i­cant de­ci­sion­mak­ing is car­ried out from high­est au­thor­ity in the ech­e­lon down to in­di­vid­ual schools. It is one way also to en­cour­age the par­tic­i­pa­tion of the stake­hold­ers in the ed­u­ca­tion process by giv­ing them re­spon­si­bil­ity for de­ci­sions in terms of bud­get­ing, per­son­nel, cur­ricu­lum, and in­struc­tion.

SBM is an ad­di­tional bur­den for teach­ers be­cause it re­quires a lot of prepa­ra­tion for doc­u­men­ta­tion es­pe­cially dur­ing the pe­riod of its im­ple­men­ta­tion. How­ever, de­spite of pa­per works to pre­pare, SBM is of great ad­van­tage if there is a clear and uni­fied vi­sion and policies to work on with the dif­fer­ent mem­bers of the team through shared au­thor­ity. Op­por­tu­ni­ties are equally dis­trib­uted to more adept in­di­vid­u­als in car­ry­ing out de­ci­sions that will im­prove teach­ing and learn­ing process. The work­ing com­mit­tee have the right to voice out their valu­able opin­ions that is ben­e­fi­cial for the suc­cess in the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the pro­gram. It also in­ten­si­fies ac­count­abil­ity for school per­for­mance and trans­parency.

There is greater cre­ativ­ity in de­sign­ing dif­fer­ent pro­grams, since train­ing has been un­der­taken in de­ci­sion-mak­ing, prob­lem-solv­ing, man­age­ment, su­per­vi­sion, and lead­er­ship skills. For suc­cess­ful SBM school im­ple­menters, a wide av­enue awaits for them in re­struc­tur­ing cur­ricu­lum and in­struc­tion in achiev­ing high per­for­mance.

Schools should em­brace the im­por­tance of SBM, how it af­fects and im­proves school per­for­mance, how it works, and why it is nec­es­sary to im­ple­ment. How­ever, there must be a strong sup­port and as­sis­tance com­ing from higher au­thor­i­ties for suc­cess­ful im­ple­men­ta­tion of the pro­gram es­pe­cially in al­lo­cat­ing bud­get in dif­fer­ent ar­eas and con­tinue giv­ing re­wards for suc­cess­ful im­ple­menters.

--oOo—

The author is Teacher III at Sto. To­mas Ele­men­tary School, Sto. To­mas District

--oOo-The author is Teacher III at Cristo Rey High School, Ca­pas, Tar­lac

WARLITO M. FLORES

E duca­tion is de­scribed by ed­u­ca­tional cul­ture bear­ersand ed­uca tional lead­ers as the re­flec­tion or mir­ror of the so­ci­ety, show­ing its lights/strengths, shad­ows/weak­nesses, bright­ness/hopes, shades/ bi­ases and key val­ues/hues of its cul­ture. Thus, ed­u­ca­tion has a def­i­nite role to play in the de­vel­op­ment of peo­ple and coun­tries.

Ed­u­ca­tion plays a sig­nif­i­cant role in the de­vel­op­ment of peo­ple be­cause peo­ple are the wealth of any na­tion; there­fore, peo­ple are viewed as a fo­cus for de­vel­op­ment. It plays a vi­tal role in the de­vel­op­ment of the coun­try be­cause ed­u­ca­tion is the source of growth of any coun­try. This may be one of the rea­sons why United Na­tions Ed­u­ca­tional Sci­en­tific and Cul­tural Or­ga­ni­za­tion (UNESCO) de­clare ed­u­ca­tion a vehicle for and in­di­ca­tor of de­vel­op­ment.

Ed­u­ca­tion and train­ing play a vi­tal role in as­sist­ing in­di­vid­u­als and so­ci­eties of the global aca­demic com­mu­nity to ad­just to so­cial, eco­nomic and cul­tural changes and pro­mote the de­vel­op­ment of the hu­man cap­i­tal es­sen­tial for eco­nomic growth.

Mod­ern ed­u­ca­tion, school­ing in par­tic­u­lar, aims at im­part­ing knowl­edge, skills and at­ti­tudes re­quired by the young ones to be­come func­tional in their re­spec­tive so­ci­eties. Schools are there­fore in­tended to serve as agents for de­vel­op­ing in­di­vid­ual cit­i­zens within an ed­uca­tive com­mu­nity. In essence, schools are in­sti­tu­tions where learn­ers are groomed to ap­pre­ci­ate what the so­ci­ety in which they live stands for and are equipped in or­der for them to con­trib­ute to the ad­vance­ment of their so­ci­ety and their re­spec­tive com­mu­ni­ties.

In the Philip­pines, for­mal ed­u­ca­tion has been the cen­tral fo­cus in the govern­ment’s de­vel­op­ment pol­icy. For­mal ed­u­ca­tion re­flects the skills needed in the econ­omy, and it of­ten de­ter­mines in­come level, so­cial sta­tus and qual­ity of life of a peo­ple. Ed­u­ca­tion in the Philip­pines is per­ceived as a so­cial­iz­ing process through which val­ues, norms and skills are per­pet­u­ated. Thus, schools seem to be at the cen­tre of peo­ples’ as­pi­ra­tions and hope. Be­sides, some years ago, the Philip­pine govern­ment con­ceived a new Philip­pine ed­u­ca­tion whose high school grad­u­ates by 2016 would be more em­ploy­able and com­pete at in­ter­na­tional level in all ar­eas. Qual­ity ed­u­ca­tion was con­sid­ered as one of the key ar­eas of con­cen­tra­tion for Philip­pines to reach their pro­jected des­ti­na­tion.

Aca­demi­cians ob­serve that schools are sim­i­lar with a mod­er­ate dif­fer­ence in the or­ga­ni­za­tional and in­sti­tu­tional struc­tures. Ac­cord­ing to schol­ars, schools have a cat­e­gory group of stu­dents with a teacher, sched­uled times for teach­ing and all other ac­tiv­i­ties, spe­cific times for start­ing and clos­ing the school day, and man­age­ment struc­tures which are mainly hi­er­ar­chi­cal. The high­est of­fi­cial po­si­tion in the school is that of the prin­ci­pal.

Thus, the re­spon­si­bil­ity of run­ning the school is that of the prin­ci­pal.

In spite of the sim­i­lar­i­ties in the or­ga­ni­za­tional and ad­min­is­tra­tive struc­tures of schools, stud­ies have shown that schools are dif­fer­ent, one from the other in the way they func­tion as well as the ef­fects they have on the lives of learn­ers. For ex­am­ple, re­search find­ings in­di­cate that some schools are more su­pe­rior than oth­ers. They ob­serve that schools which per­form above av­er­age with re­gard to pupils’ be­hav­iour have the ten­dency to per­form above av­er­age in aca­demic achieve­ment. In other words, it ap­pears that there is a cor­re­la­tion be­tween stu­dents’ con­duct and their aca­demic at­tain­ment. One aca­demic scholar is of the opin­ion that, in terms of aca­demic achieve­ment or of be­hav­iour, some schools are bet­ter than oth­ers, even when they all have sim­i­lar in­takes. It could there­fore be in­ferred that some schools are bet­ter than oth­ers in aca­demic achieve­ment as well as be­hav­iour re­gard­less of hav­ing com­pa­ra­ble in­takes.

Ac­cord­ing to Dun­klee, an ed­u­ca­tional ac­tivist, the dif­fer­ences in stu­dents’ be­hav­iour and aca­demic out­comes are in­flu­enced in­ter alia by the prin­ci­pal. The prin­ci­pal leads from his/her val­ues. The ac­tiv­i­ties of the school are de­ter­mined by what the prin­ci­pal does. S/He in­flu­ences ev­ery­one else’s be­hav­iour: his/her val­ues are con­ta­gious, his/her good sense of ethics in­stils re­spect and trust in the sys­tem; s/he com­mu­ni­cates a pow­er­ful mes­sage about what is im­por­tant, how peo­ple are to be treated and how the school should op­er­ate daily. But­tress­ing the above claim, Ram­sey, an­other ed­u­ca­tional ac­tivist con­tends that, in an or­ga­ni­za­tion like the school, stu­dents and staff tend to live up to the im­age of the prin­ci­pal; be­cause no school is high per­form­ing with­out an ef­fec­tive and ef­fi­cient prin­ci­pal; he is the gospel that his/her staff and pupils read, a model or par­a­digm of be­hav­iour and work at­ti­tude to be copied and learned from, by all. It im­plies that the prin­ci­pal is there­fore ex­pected to ac­cept re­spon­si­bil­ity for what­ever pupils and staff do, and lead, both by word and ac­tion, cre­at­ing a school cul­ture that fa­cil­i­tates ef­fec­tive teach­ing and learn­ing. --oOo—

The author is Teacher II at San Jose Ele­men­tary School, Ma­cabebe West District

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