Saddle and Stirrups
c. 200 ad
Horses were domesticated as far back as 4,000 BC, probably in Central Asia. However, for thousands of years, riders rode bareback and used only a rope harness and bit to direct the animals. Around 200 AD, the consummate horsemen and women of Central Asia developed the leather saddle. They later added a metal stirrup for ease of mounting and dismounting. When combined, these two inventions allowed Central Asians and other riders to shoot arrows and drive lances from horseback, significantly impacting both hunting techniques and warfare.