Ubekholelwa kakhulu kwabamnyama

Wayeqhakambisa ukuziqhenya ngebala elimnyama

Ilanga - - Izindaba - MENZI JELE sazim@ilanganews.co.za

IMVAMISA abantu abalusizo nabalungile emphakathini kabaphili isikhathi eside, basheshe bashone. Labo bantu kuthi uma sebehambile emhlabeni, kusale kukhalwa kwazise indima enhle ebese beyiqalile kabazange bayiphothule.

Omunye walabo bantu nguStephen “Steve” Bantu Biko owayengumholi weBlack Consciousness Movement (BCM). Kuleli sonto kuphela iminyaka engama-40 uBiko abulawa wuhulumeni woba-ndlululo eneminyaka engama-31 ubudala - ushone zili-12 kuMandulo (September) ngonyaka we-1977.

Inkolelo yeBCM uBiko ayeyiqhakambisa, yayikhuthaza uBuntu kubantu, ukuzihlonipha, ukuzithanda, ukwesaba ihlazo, ukubambisana nokubumbana, wukuba nentshisekelo yokuzenzela izinto nokuziqhenya ngebala elimnyama.

Izimfundiso zikaBiko zazinika ithemba kubantu ababecindezelwe, ikakhulukazi abamnyama. Lo mkhankaso weBCM wasungulwa emuva kokuba owayengundunankulu waseNingizimu Afrika wangaleso sikhathi, uDkt Hendrik Verwoerd, evale umlomo izinhlangano ezazilwela inkululeko - okuyi-African National Congress (ANC) nePan Africanist Congress (PAC) - ngemuva kwesibhicongo saseSharpeville mhla zingama-21 kuMandulo ngonyaka we-1960.

UDkt Verwoerd wakwenza kwaba yicala ukuzimbandakanya nalezi zinhlangano, uma iyingxenye yazo wawuboshwa noma ubulawe. Kwabanokwesaba, ukuthuthumela nokuzenyeza kubantu abamnyama, bezibona bengezinto zalutho.

UBiko nabanye abafundi basemanyuvesi ehlukene kuleli, baqhamuka nalo mkhankaso wokukhuculula insila yokuzenyeza kubantu abamnyama. UBiko saqala ukumbona ewumthente ohlaba usamila, ekhombisa ukukhalipha kusukela ebuncaneni bakhe.

Uzalelwe eTylden, e-Eastern Cape zili-18 kuZibandlela (December) ngonyaka we-1946. Umndeni wakhe - okunguyise, uMnu Mzinganyi Biko, unina uNkk Nokuzola Biko nezingane zakwabo - wathuthela elokishini laseGinsberg ekuhambeni kwesikhathi.

Umfowabo omdala kaSteve Biko, uMnu Khaya Biko, wayeyilunga le-Azanian People’s Liberation Army (APLA), uPoqo - okwakuwuphiko lwezempi lwePan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC) - ngenxa yalokhu uSteve waxoshwa eLovedale College, e-Eastern Cape lapho ayefunda khona ngoba kuthiwa uzalwa namaphekula.

USteve Biko wafudukela eSt. Franscis Colllege, eMariannhill, entshonalanga yeTheku wayoqhuba imfundo khona. ISt. Franscis College noma kuyisikhungo samaRoma aKhatholika, kodwa iyaziwa ngokukhiqiza abaholi abavelele emikhakheni eyehlukene.

USteve Biko, uMnu Mosioua Lekota, uDkt Baldwin Sipho “Ben” Ngubane, uDkt Herriettte Ngubane, uDkt Bandile Mkhize, uSolwazi Mseshi Ndlovu (ongasekho), uMnu Samuel Jamile (ongasekho), uMnu Sipho Ngobese noMnu Cyril Madlala abagcina bengabahleli bamaphephandaba, uMnu Zakhele “MZ” Khumalo nabanye bakhiqizwa iSt. Franscis College.

USteve Biko simbona edlulela e-University of Natal-Medical School, eWentworth ngonyaka we-1966 eyokweza izifundo zobudokotela. Lapho wafike wazimbandakanya nepolitiki yabafundi bajoyina iNational Union of South African Students (Nusas) eyayixube izinhlanga.

Ekuhambeni kwesikhathi uBiko nezinye izitshudeni baxebuka kwiNusas besola insila yobandlululo kuyona. Baqala iSouth African Student’s Organisation (Saso ) ngonyaka we-1969. Wayeyisishabasheki uBiko, ehamba wonke amanyuvesi eshumayela ivangeli leBCM.

Wafika e-University of Zululand KwaDlangezwa, eMpangeni, enyakatho-mpumalanga yeKwaZuluNatal wathola uLindani Muntu Myeza, uNichodemus Mthuli Shezi noMnu Mosibudi Mangena wabenza abaholi beSaso. Wafika e-University of Durban Westville wathola uSaths Copper noStrini Moodley wafolosa ngabo kwiSaso, wafika eTurfloop (uNiversity of the North) wathola o-Onkopotse Tiro, uCyril Ramaphosa, uPhandelani Nefolovhodwe, uGelser Nkondo nabanye baqhuba umzabalawo weBCM.

USteve Biko eMedical School wayenoDkt Ben Ngubane, uDkt Mamphele Rampele, uDkt Olaf Baloyi, uDkt Manqoba Zwane nabanye. Wagcina exoshiwe e-University of Natal ngoba kuthiwa uyapolitika ngonyaka we-1972.

Yize kunjalo, akazange adikibale, baqala izinhlangano ezisiza umphakathi eThekwini. Wayekholelwa kakhulu ekubeni umuntu omnyama makazimele, yingakho kunesiqubulo seBCM esithi “Blackman you are on your own” okusho ukuthi “muntu omnyama usele wedwa”.

Uhulumeni wobandlululo wagcina usumgqume esifundeni sase- King William’s Town, e-Eastern Cape uSteve Biko, engavunyelwe ukuphuma khona nokuhlangana nabanye abantu. Imfundiso yeBCM kayigcinanga ezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme ngemuva kokunqindwa amandla kukaBiko nozakwabo. Kwasungulwa iBlack People’s Convention (BPC) eyayinabaholi nezishoshovu ezazikholelwa kwiBCM.

Nabaholi bePAC okubalwa kubona uMnu Zeph Mothopheng, babeyingxenye yeBPC. Kwakukhona nabefundisi uRev. Frank Chikane noBarney Pityana nabefundisi baseRegina Mundi, eSoweto, abasungula iBlack Thelogy eyabambisana neBCM. Besebenzisa ipulpiti ukulwa nenqubo yobandlulo beshumayela nevangeli leBCM.

I-BPC yahlela ukhukhulelangoqo womhlangano eCurries Fountain Staidum, eThekwini ijabulela ukuthi iMozambique ithole inkululeko ngonyaka we-1974. Lapho kwaboshwa inqwaba yabaholi be-BCM.

USteve Biko noma wayesevaliwe ukuhlangana nomphakathi nokuba akhulume nawo, kodwa waqhubeka wasebenzela umphakathi e-Eastern Cape, wasungula iZanempilo Clinic, iZimele Development Project, ebhala nasemaphephandabeni egxeka uhulumeni wobandlululo.

Wayengakholwa ukuthi umuntu omnyama kufanele acele kubelungu izinto ebe engenza noma yini esemandleni akhe. USteve Biko neBCM babeyinhlasi yezibhelu zaseSoweto zangonyaka we-1976. Waboshwa ngamaphoyisa kahulumeni wobandlululo ePort Elizabeth ehamba nomngani wakhe, uMnu Peter Cyril Jones ngoNcwaba (August) we-1977.

Washonela ePretoria Central Prison mhla zili-12 kuMandulo we-1977. Leli jele selaziwa nge-Kgosi Mampuru Central Prison. Kunengxenye yeDurban University of Technology (DUT) eqanjwe ngoBiko, okuthiwa yiSteve Biko Campus.

UBiko wadlula emhlabeni eseganwe nguNontsikelelo Mashalaba, intombi yaseMthatha. Babusiswa ngamadodana uNkosinathi noSamora. Njengoba washo uMagolwana kaMkhathini wakwaJiyane, inyosi yeSilo uDingane yathi “Vezi kof’ abantu kusale izibongo yizona ezosale zibalilela zibadalula emanxiweni,”

Noma sekuphele iminyaka engama-40 wabulawa uSteve Biko, imisebenzi nezinkolelo zakhe kuyohlala kumile ingunaphakade.

BLACK MAN YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN OKUSHO...

ISITHOMBE NGABE: XHOSACULTURE

NGEMINYE yemibono kaBiko lapho ethi isikhali esinamandla somcindezeli wumqondo womuntu ocindezelwe.

ISITHOMBE NGABE: ENCA

WASEBENZA nenqwaba yabaholi uSteve Biko owashona esemusha ngowe-1977.

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