100 WOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD

We asked you to vote for the women you believe have had the big­gest im­pact on world his­tory, from a short­list of 100 fig­ures se­lected by 10 ex­perts. Turn the page to dis­cover who topped our poll and to read his­to­ri­ans’ anal­y­sis of the re­sults

BBC History Magazine - - Front Page - WORDS: CHAR­LOTTE HODG­MAN

100 Am­rita Pritam 1919–2005 In­dian writer and poet 99 An­nette Keller­man 1887–1975 Pro­fes­sional swim­mer 98 Buchi Emecheta 1944–2017 Pi­o­neer­ing nov­el­ist 97 Em­i­lie du Châtelet 1706–49 French nat­u­ral philoso­pher 96 Fanny Men­delssohn 1805–47 Pi­anist and com­poser 95 Ka­tia Krafft 1942–91 French vol­ca­nol­o­gist 94 So­phie Blan­chard 1778–1819 Pro­fes­sional aero­naut 93 Su­san Son­tag 1933–2004 Writer and film­maker 92 Yeshe Ts­o­gyal 757–817 Mother of Ti­betan Bud­dhism 91 Aisha c613/614–678 Wife of Muham­mad 90 Anna Ja­cob­son Schwartz 1915–2012 Amer­i­can econ­o­mist 89 Beu­lah Louise Henry 1887–1973 Pro­lific in­ven­tor 88 Clara Schu­mann 1819–96 Mu­si­cian and com­poser 87 Eli­nor Ostrom 1933–2012 Po­lit­i­cal econ­o­mist 86 Estée Lauder 1908–2004 Cos­met­ics com­pany founder 85 Fanny Blankers-Koen 1918–2004 Dutch ath­lete 84 Fanny Bur­ney 1752–1840 Nov­el­ist and play­wright 83 Gwen John 1876–1939 Artist 82 He­len Gwynne-Vaughan 1879–1967 Pi­o­neer­ing RAF com­man­dant 81 Lily Parr 1905–78 Pro­fes­sional foot­baller 80 Maria Bochkareva 1889–1920 Rus­sian army of­fi­cer 79 Murasaki Shik­ibu c978–1016 Ja­panese nov­el­ist and poet 78 Ruth Han­dler 1916–2002 Busi­ness­woman and in­ven­tor 77 Saro­jini Naidu 1879–1949 Po­lit­i­cal ac­tivist and poet 76 Sonja He­nie 1912–69 Fig­ure skater and film star 75 Wilma Ru­dolph 1940–94 Olympic cham­pion 74 Alice Mil­liat 1884–1957 Pi­o­neer­ing ath­lete 73 An­drea Dworkin 1946–2005 Rad­i­cal fem­i­nist and writer 72 Dowa­ger Em­press Cixi of China 1835–1908 Chi­nese ruler for 47 years 71 Ge­orge Eliot 1819–80 Nov­el­ist and poet 70 Joan Robin­son 1903–83 Econ­o­mist 69 Lot­tie Dod 1871–1960 Sportswoman 68 Maria Me­rian 1647–1717 Nat­u­ral­ist and en­to­mol­o­gist 67 Marie Marv­ingt 1875–1963 French ath­lete and avi­a­tor 66 Martina BergmanÖster­berg 1849–1915 Pi­o­neer of women’s sport 65 Mary Somerville 1780–1872 Sci­ence writer and poly­math 64 Prophet Deborah c12th cen­tury BC Bib­li­cal prophet of Yah­weh 63 Rachael Hey­hoe Flint 1939–2017 Crick­eter and phi­lan­thropist 62 Sarah 1867–1919 Breedlove En­tre­pre­neur and ac­tivist 61 Suzanne 1899–1938 Len­glen French ten­nis player 60 Emily Hob­house 1860–1926 Bri­tish wel­fare cam­paigner 59 Ethel Smyth 1858–1944 Com­poser and suf­frag­ist 58 Gertrude Ederle 1906–2003 Swim­ming cham­pion 57 Junko Tabei 1939–2016 Ja­panese moun­taineer 56 Laura Bassi 1711–78 Physi­cist and aca­demic 55 Marie Van Brit­tan Brown 1922–99 In­ven­tor of the first CCTV 54 Maryam Mirza­khani 1977–2017 Ira­nian math­e­ma­ti­cian 53 Sir­i­mavo Ban­daranaike 1916–2000 Prime min­is­ter of Sri Lanka 52 Anna Akhma­tova 1889–1966 Rus­sian poet 51 Clara Bar­ton 1821–1912 Amer­i­can Red Cross founder 50 Gabriela Mis­tral 1889–1957 Chilean poet- diplo­mat 49 Indira Gandhi 1917–84 In­dian prime min­is­ter 48 Katharine Graham 1917–2001 Wash­ing­ton Post pub­lisher 47 Zora Neale Hurston 1891–1960 African-Amer­i­can au­thor 46 Artemisia Gen­tileschi 1593–1652/53 Ital­ian Baroque painter 45 Coco Chanel 1883–1971 French fash­ion de­signer 44 Aphra Behn 1640–89 Bri­tish play­wright and poet 43 Bessie Cole­man 1892–1926 Civil avi­a­tor 42 Is­abella Bird 1831–1904 Ex­plorer and writer 41 Cather­ine de’ Medici 1519–89 Ital­ian-born queen of France 40 Lise Meit­ner 1878–1968 Aus­trian physi­cist 39 Nel­lie Bly 1864–1922 Pi­o­neer­ing jour­nal­ist 38 Saca­gawea 1788–1812 Shoshone in­ter­preter 37 Eleanor Rath­bone 1872–1946 MP and phi­lan­thropist 36 Hy­pa­tia c355–415 An­cient Greek philoso­pher 35 Theodora c497–548 Em­press of Byzan­tium 34 Frida Kahlo 1907–54 Mex­i­can artist 33 Grace Hop­per 1906–92 Com­puter sci­en­tist 32 Si­mone de Beau­voir 1908–86 Writer and philoso­pher 31 Vir­ginia Woolf 1882–1941 Bri­tish mod­ernist nov­el­ist 30 Wan­gari Maathai 1940–2011 En­vi­ron­men­tal ac­tivist 29 Cather­ine of Siena 1347–80 Philoso­pher and the­olo­gian 28 Is­abella of Castile 1451–1504 Queen of Castile 27 Joan of Arc 1412–31 Mar­tyr and mil­i­tary leader 26 Mary Anning 1799–1847 Pa­le­on­tol­o­gist 25 El­iz­a­beth Fry 1780–1845 So­cial re­former 24 Cleopa­tra 69 BC–30 BC Egyp­tian pharaoh 23 Vera Atkins 1908–2000 Bri­tish in­tel­li­gence of­fi­cer 22 Cather­ine the Great 1729–96 Em­press of Rus­sia 21 Mary Shel­ley 1797–1851 Nov­el­ist

Am­rita Pritam, one of In­dia’s most im­por­tant writ­ers

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