RUMPS AND OUTER TAIL FEATHERS
Many birds have distinctive rear ends: the rump and tail feathers provide useful ID pointers. White is a favoured colour for rumps and outer tail feathers, or the base of the tail. In some cases, such as the Wheatear, there is a white rump and tail base. Other species, such as Bullfinches, Bramblings and House Martins, have white rumps which make them instantly identifiable. White outer tail feathers are also widely employed, for instance in many buntings, wagtails and pipits, some warblers such as Whitethroat, and some finches. These tail end features can be enormously helpful in the field.