War’s a slap in the face!

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QUES­TION In 1943, while vis­it­ing a mil­i­tary hos­pi­tal in Si­cily, U.S. Gen­eral Ge­orge S. Pat­ton slapped a sol­dier suf­fer­ing from bat­tle fa­tigue — to the hor­ror of those present. What hap­pened to the GI he slapped? This was Charles herman Kuhl. he was born on Novem­ber 6, 1915, in Mishawaka, in­di­ana, and was a car­pet fit­ter be­fore join­ing the war ef­fort in 1943.

he served as a pri­vate in Com­pany L, 26th in­fantry Reg­i­ment, 1st in­fantry Divi­sion, part of Lt- Gen­eral Ge­orge s. Pat­ton’s seventh Army, which was en­gaged in an ar­du­ous cam­paign to seize con­trol of si­cily from the Ger­mans and ital­ians in prepa­ra­tion for the in­va­sion of italy.

On Au­gust 2, 1943, Kuhl was ad­mit­ted to the 3rd Bat­tal­ion, 26th in­fantry aid sta­tion and trans­ferred to the Army’s 15th Evac­u­a­tion hos­pi­tal near Ni­cosia, where his med­i­cal card said ‘psy­choneu­ro­sis anx­i­ety state, mod­er­ately se­vere’.

On the after­noon of Au­gust 3, Pat­ton made one of his fre­quent hos­pi­tal vis­its. After prais­ing the phys­i­cally wounded sol­diers, he came across Kuhl and asked him what was the matter. The sol­dier replied: ‘i guess i can’t take it.’

Pat­ton slapped Kuhl across the chin with his gloves, then grabbed him by the col­lar and threw him out of the tent, shout­ing ‘Don’t ad­mit this son of a bitch’ and ‘You hear me, you gut­less bas­tard? You’re go­ing back to the front’.

Fol­low­ing the in­ci­dent, Kuhl was found to have chronic dysen­tery and malaria. Pat­ton’s ac­tions might have been mo­ti­vated by a re­port given to him by Gen­eral Clarence R. hueb­ner, Com­man­der of the 1st in­fantry Divi­sion to which Kuhl be­longed. hueb­ner told Pat­ton: ‘The front lines seem to be thin­ning out. There seems to be a very large num­ber of “ma­lin­ger­ers” at the hos­pi­tals, feign­ing ill­ness in or­der to avoid com­bat duty.’

When Pat­ton’s com­man­der, Gen­eral Eisen­hower, learned of the matter, he or­dered Pat­ton to apol­o­gise.

Pat­ton’s en­counter with Kuhl was de­picted in the 1970 film Pat­ton, where Kuhl was played by Tim Con­si­dine.

in an in­ter­view, Kuhl re­lated that when Pat­ton apol­o­gised per­son­ally, ‘he said he didn’t know that i was as sick as i was’. Kuhl added that: ‘i think at the time it hap­pened he was pretty well worn- out him­self.’ De­spite calls to re­move Pat­ton, Eisen­hower re­alised that his mav­er­ick gen­eral was too im­por­tant to the war ef­fort: ‘if this thing ever gets out, they’ll be howl­ing for Pat­ton’s scalp, and that will be the end of Ge­orgie’s ser­vice in this war. i sim­ply can­not let that hap­pen. Pat­ton is in­dis­pens­able to the war ef­fort — one of the guar­an­tors of our vic­tory.’

After the war, Charles Kuhl re­turned to in­di­ana and worked as a jan­i­tor for Bendix Cor­po­ra­tion, an en­gi­neer­ing firm. Kuhl had mar­ried in 1940. he died in Mishawaka on Jan­uary 31, 1971, and is buried at the city’s Fairview Ceme­tery.

G. Coles, Birm­ing­ham.

QUES­TION What hap­pened to Mary Berry’s first TV co-host Paul Kaye? PAUL KAYE did do some pre­sent­ing work on York­shire TV’s Farm­house Kitchen in the sev­en­ties but can’t be de­scribed as Mary Berry’s co-host. in one episode i re­call him demon­strat­ing how to make beer. he was far bet­ter known as one of the pioneers of pirate ra­dio.

Born Paul Kazarine in Barn­sta­ple, Devon, in 1934, after leav­ing school he worked in rep and in 1952 be­came stage man­ager of a theatre com­pany in Nairobi.

he joined the Kenyan po­lice and saw ac­tive ser­vice dur­ing the Mau Mau emer­gency. he then moved to Cyprus, where he pro­duced a ra­dio pro­gramme, Jazz For The Forces.

When Ra­dio Lon­don was launched at the end of 1964, Kaye be­came its news reader, the first voice heard on the sta­tion. his re­ports on the half-hour were punc­tu­ated by jin­gles and dra­matic mu­sic long be­fore the BBC fol­lowed suit. his the­atri­cal voice was one of the in­dus­try’s most dis­tinc­tive.

in Au­gust 1967, the Marine Of­fences Act be­came law, and the first voice on Ra­dio Lon­don be­came the last as Kaye closed the sta­tion down when he was heard to an­nounce: ‘Big L time is three o’clock and Ra­dio Lon­don is now clos­ing down.’

Kaye moved to Ra­dio Lux­em­bourg, where he be­came pro­gramme di­rec­tor for the English ser­vice. in 1969 he re­turned to Eng­land to take up a three-year con­tract as an­nouncer/linkman for York­shire TV in Leeds. in 1972 he went free­lance, and took up a va­ri­ety of jobs, in­clud­ing two weekly shows for Pen­nine Ra­dio in Bradford and as pre­sen­ter of hot stuff, a jazz pro­gramme on Ra­dio hal­lam.

he con­tin­ued to work for York­shire TV, work­ing along­side Ra­dio Lon­don col­leagues John Crosse and Earl Rich­mond as well as Red­vers Kyle, Keith Martin and Terry Davis.

in Novem­ber 1980, Kaye was due to give a talk in steve­nage, herts, when he was taken ill and died a few days later, aged 46.

Jim Stevens, Maidenhead, Berks.

QUES­TION How is the ‘im­pact fac­tor’ of sci­en­tific jour­nals cal­cu­lated? ThE qual­ity of the jour­nals in which sci­en­tists pub­lish can make or break their ca­reer. A sci­en­tist must pub­lish in ‘lead­ing’ jour­nals, with a ‘ high jour­nal im­pact’ fac­tor (JiF).

The JiF is sup­posed to give an ‘ob­jec­tive’ mea­sure of a jour­nal’s qual­ity. it is a fig­ure de­rived from the num­ber of sci­en­tific ci­ta­tions a jour­nal re­ceives. On one level, a ci­ta­tion is sim­ply a ref­er­ence within an ar­ti­cle to a pub­lished or un­pub­lished source, but it’s more im­por­tant than that — it refers to past sci­en­tific ev­i­dence that val­i­dates the sci­en­tist’s work.

in the early part of the cen­tury, raw ci­ta­tion counts were used by sci­en­tific li­brar­i­ans to de­ter­mine which jour­nals were worth buy­ing or plac­ing most promi­nently on their shelves.

in 1955, Eugene Garfield pub­lished a pa­per in sci­ence where he pro­posed an im­pact fac­tor based on ci­ta­tions. By 1964, he and his part­ners were pub­lish­ing the sci­ence Ci­ta­tion in­dex ( sCi) and in­tro­duced the idea of a JiF num­ber.

Garfield ex­plained how to use the sCi in 1967: ‘When cal­cu­lat­ing the JiF, one takes into ac­count the over­all num­ber of ci­ta­tions the jour­nal re­ceived in a cer­tain year for the two pre­vi­ous years and di­vides them by the num­ber of items the Jour­nal Ci­ta­tion Re­port (JCR) con­sid­ers “citable” and were pub­lished that year.’

The JiF does not make com­par­isons across dis­ci­plines. Each dis­ci­pline has a dif­fer­ent size and ci­ta­tion be­hav­iour (for ex­am­ple, math­e­ma­ti­cians tend to cite much less than bi­ol­o­gists).

The jour­nal Na­ture has a 2014 JiF of 41.456, while Acta Numer­ica, the jour­nal with the high­est 2014 JiF in the Math­e­mat­ics cat­e­gory, has a JiF of 7.364.

The sci­ence Ci­ta­tion in­dex is to­day op­er­ated by Thom­son Reuters.

Dr Ian Smith, Cam­bridge.

IS THERE a ques­tion to which you have al­ways wanted to know the an­swer? Or do you know the an­swer to a ques­tion raised here? Send your ques­tions and an­swers to: Charles Legge, An­swers To Cor­re­spon­dents, Daily Mail, 2 Derry Street, Lon­don, W8 5TT. You can also fax them to 01952 780111 or you can email them to charles. legge@dai­ly­mail.co.uk. A se­lec­tion will be pub­lished but we are not able to en­ter into in­di­vid­ual cor­re­spon­dence.

Di­rect hit: Pat­ton (left) and Kuhl

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