EQ GLOS­SARY

EQUUS - - Eq Glossary -

al­lele--- one of the al­ter­na­tive forms of any gene on a chro­mo­some. Each al­lele rep­re­sents a dif­fer­ent vari­a­tion of a phys­i­cal trait and each has one cor­re­spond­ing al­lele on the chro­mo­some’s paired coun­ter­part. For ex­am­ple, one blue-eye al­lele will have one cor­re­spond­ing al­lele that car­ries ei­ther a blue, green or brown­eye trait. axon--- long, thin ex­ten­sion of a nerve cell that trans­mits im­pulses away from the cell body to be picked up by the “re­ceivers” of the next nerve cell. chro­mo­some--- the self-repli­cat­ing ge­netic struc­ture of cells con­tain­ing the cel­lu­lar DNA that bears in its nu­cleo­tide se­quence the lin­ear ar­ray of genes. Each species has a con­stant num­ber of chro­mo­somes set in pairs in the nu­cleus of each body cell; the horse has 64, or 32 pairs. colostrum--- thick, ex­tra-rich milk se­creted by the preg­nant mare’s mam­mary glands as they fill, usu­ally be­fore the foal’s birth. Con­tains glob­u­lins and other pro­teins that pro­vide the foal with tem­po­rary im­mu­nity against in­fec­tious dis­ease. Must be con­sumed by the foal within a few (max­i­mum 12) hours of birth to con­fer pro­tec­tion to the foal. cor­ti­cos­teroids--- analogs of the hor­mone cor­ti­sol pro­duced pri­mar­ily by the adrenal glands; they may be nat­u­ral or syn­thet­i­cally pro­duced for in­jec­tion. cor­ti­sol (hy­dro­cor­ti­sone)---adrenal hor­mone reg­u­lat­ing fat and water me­tab­o­lism, mus­cle tone, nerve stim­u­la­tion and in­flam­ma­tion.

DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of liv­ing or­gan­isms.

equine her­pesvirus (EHV)---a fam­ily of viruses that pri­mar­ily cause chronic res­pi­ra­tory in­fec­tions in horses (EHV-1, EHV-4). EHV-1 can also cause abor­tions in mares and, in rare cases, both EHV-1 and -4 can cause neu­ro­log­i­cal signs, in­clud­ing pro­gres­sive weak­ness and in­co­or­di­na­tion. EHV-3 causes a vene­real dis­ease called equine coital ex­an­thema.

equine pro­to­zoal myeloen­cephali­tis (EPM) ---in­flam­ma­tion of the brain and spinal cord caused by pro­to­zoal in­fec­tion.

gene--- the fun­da­men­tal phys­i­cal and func­tional unit of hered­ity; an or­dered se­quence of nu­cleo­tides lo­cated in a par­tic­u­lar po­si­tion on a par­tic­u­lar chro­mo­some that en­codes a spe­cific func­tional prod­uct.

geno­type--- to­tal ge­netic in­her­i­tance; all of the genes present in the chro­mo­somes of a horse’s cells, one-half of which came from his father and one-half from his mother.

lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment.

lym­phan­gi­tis (milk leg, Mon­day morn­ing leg) ---in­flam­ma­tion of lymph ves­sels and nodes, char­ac­ter­ized by hot, painful swellings in and be­neath the skin, usu­ally on the legs. necropsy--- ex­am­i­na­tion of an an­i­mal’s body af­ter death, nor­mally done to as­cer­tain the cause of death. pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing. proud flesh--- ex­cess gran­u­la­tion tis­sue ris­ing out of and above the edges of a wound, form­ing a raw, ex­posed mound that makes fur­ther heal­ing de­layed or im­pos­si­ble with­out med­i­ca­tion or surgery. serum--- the liq­uid por­tion of blood re­main­ing af­ter solid com­po­nents have been re­moved by clot­ting. wob­bles (cer­vi­cal ver­te­bral com­pres­sive myelopa­thy)---in­co­or­di­na­tion due to mal­for­ma­tion of the ver­te­brae in the neck that causes com­pres­sion or “pinch­ing” of the spinal cord. In dy­namic com­pres­sion, the ver­te­brae al­low too much mo­tion in the joints, which pinches the cord. In static com­pres­sion, ex­cess growth of bone and/or car­ti­lage nar­rows the spinal canal and im­pinges on the cord.

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