allele--- one of the alternative forms of any gene on a chromosome. Each allele represents a different variation of a physical trait and each has one corresponding allele on the chromosome’s paired counterpart. For example, one blue-eye allele will have one corresponding allele that carries either a blue, green or brown-eye trait. anterior--- situated near or toward the head. antigen--- substance, often a protein, that the body’s immune system recognizes as foreign and reacts to by producing an antibody.
Banamine--- trade name of flunixin meglumine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to control inflammation and pain primarily associated with colic and muscle injuries.
carbohydrates--- large group of carbon-based compounds, including starches, sugars and cellulose, that are found in plants and form the largest class of animal foods. Carbohydrates, together with proteins and lipids, are principal components of cell protoplasm, the viscous fluid that fills plant and animal cells.
catheter--- flexible tube inserted into a body opening to remove or administer fluid.
caudal--- referring to a position near or toward the tail. chromosome--- the self-replicating genetic structure of cells containing the cellular DNA that bears in its nucleotide sequence the linear array of genes. Each species has a constant number of chromosomes set in pairs in the nucleus of each body cell; the horse has 64, or 32 pairs.
cornea--- transparent membrane forming the front part of the eyeball. Light passes through the cornea to the lens.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)---large organic molecule that consists of two chains of nucleotides wound around each other; the material of which genes are made. Genes are responsible for the individual inherited characteristics of living organisms.
equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)--endocrine disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the bloodstream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes.
fecal egg count--- laboratory procedure for determining the number of internal-parasite eggs in a fecal sample; used primarily to estimate a horse’s level of infection with ascarids and/or strongyles.
insulin resistance--- metabolic disorder, similar to type 2 diabetes, that occurs when certain cells in the body become less sensitive to the action of insulin, and normal amounts of the hormone can no longer keep adequate amounts of glucose moving into the cells for use as fuel.
laminitis--- inflammation of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologic injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriate, intensive treatment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, long-term condition that may be unresponsive to treatment. mandible--- the lower jawbone.
nasogastric tube--- flexible tube inserted into the nostrils and passed into the stomach to introduce or drain fluid (reflux).
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling.
phenylbutazone (“bute”)---generic name for an odorless anti-inflammatory medication used in the management of joint, bone and muscle injuries or disorders.
placebo--- preparation containing no medication, administered in order to simulate treatment.
protein--- large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order. Proteins are required for the structure, function and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues and organs, and each protein has unique functions. Simple proteins consist only of amino acids.
Conjugated proteins consist of amino acids joined to other complex molecules. Derived proteins are the products of chemical changes to other proteins.
sinusitis--- inflammation of one or more of the cavities surrounding the nasal passages.
stereotypy--- repetitive, compulsive behavior that serves no function. Examples of stereotypies in horses include cribbing, weaving and stall walking. thrush--- hoof disease characterized by degeneration of the frog and a thick, foulsmelling discharge.