m tok. : co onoo lo g rb , ea ilsny ta io de at e vi orila m iv Fosp r sc . w PERSPECTIVES & OUTLOOK CIVIL AVIATION - HIGH GROWTH AND CHALLENGES PHOTO: Boeing PHOTO: Airbus CHAPTER 3 Technology and Performance Leading the Way! Air India is estimated to have a debt burden of more than 50,000 crore and the government’s efforts for strategic disinvestment of the airline seems to repeatedly fail. ` Indian carriers IndiGo and GoAir use the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) engines to power their A320neo aircraft try in expected to become the third largest domestic civil aviation market in the world, the industry is suffering from several problems. These days few are making money in the airline business. On an average, Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) accounts for 34 per cent of airline operating costs in India, according to the IATA, compared with the international average, which hovers around 24 per cent. Indian airline operators also do not hedge against volatility in fuel prices, a common practice among most major international carriers and this makes them more vulnerable to swings in global energy prices. Governments do not pass onto the consumer, the ATF price reduction in proportion to the fall in international crude oil prices. Conversely, it actually increases ATF price when crude rises. Government agencies often make bureaucratic regulatory interference including slashing airfares without tax concessions. The airport charges levied by the Indian airports are amongst the highest in Asia. There is also a cutthroat competition on ticket pricing. The low-cost carriers are eating up market share of bigger players. Thus top premium airlines were forced to reduce their ticket fares, further aggravating price wars. Increasing ATF price and depreciation of the rupee against the US dollar are depressing airline revenues. There is strong competition in the industry particularly as India’s domestic traffic is largely driven by low-cost carriers. The very low air ticket prices in India are actually pushing the air traffic growth and this is a strong stimulant for demand. But, it is costly for airlines that have limits to continue with onto the aircraft and will allow handling increasing volumes of passengers. Airports will be able to better allocate resources to respond to peak times, foresee the impact of flight delays and make optimal use of the runway. There are however, complexities of technologies and also the difficulties of ‘transplanting’ digital concepts into people’s day-to-day roles. Also, airports must contend with lengthy and complicated transition of new IT solutions. passenger market share. Since November 2018, Jet Airways has been reporting a negative financial outlook due to increasing losses. Cost-cutting measures as well as talks with potential investors or buyers have been on. In March 2019, nearly a fourth of Jet Airways’ aircraft were grounded due to unpaid lease charges. The lenders’ consortium is expected to invoke their entire 51 per cent stake in the airline to clear their dues. The other equity partner, Etihad, has to decide to either rescue or sever ties with Jet Airways. On March 25, 2019, Naresh Goyal and his wife stepped down from the Board of Directors. The employees have not been paid dues for some months. Meanwhile, lessors have begun to repossess the airline’s Boeing 777 long-haul fleet over unpaid leasing charges. As of April 17, 2019, Jet Airways has suspended all flight operations. All three airlines are a case of accumulated losses and inability to service the high debt. price wars. Air India is losing money, but has the government financial backing. Same was not the case of Jet Airways and Kingfisher airlines. According to IATA estimates, airlines in Asia-Pacific are expected to report profits to the tune of $10.4 billion in 2019. However, Indian airlines have fared badly this year. They will probably make a loss. The $10 to $12 billion profits will come from China, Indonesia, Australia and other emerging countries in the region. Gulfstream offers a carefully curated mix of aircra sizes and performance capabilities to suit many different mission requirements and have a healthy fleet mix around the world. Regional Vice President International Sales, Middle East and South Asia, Gulfstream, on why their aircra are so popular and successful around the globe. Nicolas Robinson, ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AIR INDIA, KINGFISHER AND JET AIRWAYS Apart from flight and ground safety, environmental protection is the most important issue for all aircraft operations. Aviation-related CO emissions are currently approximately two per cent of the global GreenHouse Gas emissions and is increasing with the growth in aviation. Managing the airport construction-related pollution, operating waste, noise and chemical emissions are many of the concerns requiring technological solutions. Ecological airport re-design and changes in air and ground operating procedures and eco-friendly initiatives can alleviate environmental pressures without causing passenger and operational stress. The environmental programmes have to be scientifically evolved specific to each airport. Balance has to be maintained between social, economic and environmental imperatives. The aim is to produce the greatest improvement in the quality of life of the citizens. India’s national carrier, Air India (AI), was once the Maharaja of the global skies and envy of the world. Today, the loss-making airline is estimated to have a debt burden of more than 50,000 crore and the government’s efforts for strategic disinvestment of the airline seems to repeatedly fail. Air India’s debt is unsustainable. The tax payer’s money has had to sustain a losing airline. Question is how long? Kingfisher Airlines Limited (KAL) was an airline built by its parent company, United Breweries. Until December 2011, KAL had the second largest share in India’s domestic air travel market. However, the airline ran into continuous losses since its inception, ran high debts and finally closed its operations in 2012. Its Chairman Vijay Mallya subsequently fled to London to hide from creditors. Jet Airways, an Indian international airline as recently as October 2017, was the second-largest airline in India after IndiGo, with a 17.8 per cent tion network, all of which reduce pilots’ workload and enhance safety. Can you indicate on what all factors are kept in mind when you design and manufacture a jet? 2 Safety is the highest priority at Gulfstream. After we have ensured the safety of our aircraft, processes and manufacturing, we consider what our customers want most from their business jet, and that is speed, performance and cabin comfort. ` Recently G650ER has been interpreted as the fastest business jet. What all has enabled this factor? Speed is a differentiator for Gulfstream, and with a maximum operating speed of Mach 0.925, the G650ER can fly farther, faster than any other business jet in the industry. This is achieved through advanced aerodynamics designed by Gulfstream engineers and high-powered yet fuel efficient engines. Gulfstream incorporated similar aerodynamics into the all-new G500 and G600, which share that maximum operating speed of Mach 0.925. FUNDING AND BUDGETARY INITIATIVES Allocation to the Ministry of Civil Aviation stands at 6,602.86 crore in 2018-2019 budget. 15,000 crore have been allotted for expanding existing terminals and constructing 15 new ones through the AAI. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into the aviation sector in the period 2000-2017 was around $1.6 billion. 100 per cent FDI under automatic route in scheduled air transport service, regional air transport service and domestic scheduled passenger airline, has been cleared. Significant FDI investment is now expected. What are the key features of the technologies that are involved in your business jets? ` ` Gulfstream invests heavily in research and development to ensure we are bringing advanced safety technologies to our customers and the industry. The Symmetry Flight Deck on the G500 and G600 is the latest example. It features the first active control sidesticks in civil aviation, the most extensive use of touchscreen technology in a flight deck, the next generation of Gulfstream’s Enhanced Flight Vision System and a robust and highly redundant data concentra- The interiors and the windows, in particular, which enable panoramic view during the flight; seem to be one of the best in the industry. What WHAT AILS INDIAN CIVIL AVIATION Despite the fact that the Indian civil aviation indus- 8 9 57 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 www.spscivilaviationyearbook.com SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 www.spscivilaviationyearbook.com REGIONAL OUTLOOK HIGH GROWTH COUNTRIES INDIA – A HIGH GROWTH MARKET REVENUE-EXPENSES-PROFITABILITY CHINA CHINA APPROXIMATE COST STRUCTURE OF AVIATION INDUSTRY IN INDIA, 2016-17 COMPARISON OF PASSENGER YIELD OF SCHEDULED INDIAN CARRIERS, 2016-17 AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS AT CIVIL AIRPORTS 2013-2017 AIR CHINA - FLEET Sub-total Self-owned Finance leases Operating leases Average age (year) 10,000 movements Aircraft Movements at Airports Year-on-Year Increase 10.0 9.5 3.4 Passenger Aircraft Airbus 634 311 265 127 171 89 198 95 6.45 6.63 % 3.8 9.0 1,024.9 1 000 20.0 923.8 A319 A320/321 A330 47 203 61 32 72 23 6 73 10 9 58 28 10.67 5.87 6.05 8.0 4.6 856.6 31.2 793.3 7.0 800 6.5 731.5 15.0 5.5 6.0 Boeing 323 138 82 103 6.26 600 10.8 10.9 10.0 4.8 B737 B747 B777 B787 269 11 30 13 110 9 8 11 64 2 16 0 95 0 6 2 6.42 9.96 5.79 0.94 5.0 4.4 6.2 400 3.9 3.9 7.9 8.4 8.0 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 4.0 5.0 3.1 200 3.0 0 0.0 Cargo Aircraft 15 10 5 0 10.54 2.0 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 9.7 B747F B757F B777F 3 4 8 3 4 3 0 0 5 0 0 0 15.53 21.35 3.26 Source: China Civil Aviation Annual Report 2017 1.0 0.0 iGo res s Air Ind Exp om ia Zo Ind Air Air Go ite ys Jetl wa Air Jet ia Ind Air et ceJ Spi Air e anc Alli a tar Vis a Asi Air jet Tru 14.2 CARGO AND MAIL TRANSPORTED BY CIVIL AVIATION 2013-2017 Business Jets Total 6 655 1 276 0 176 5 203 5.28 6.53 9.8 10,000 tons Cargo and Mail Turnover Year-on-Year Increase 11.7 % Source: Air China Annual Report 2017 Passenger Yield Passenger Yield = Passenger Revenue/RPK 10.0 800 705.9 Fuel Rentals of Flight Equipment General and Administrative Flights Equipment Maintenance & Overhaul User Charges Ticketing sales and Promotion Other Expenses Depreciation and amortization Flight Crew salary & Expenses Pax Services CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES - FLEET 668.0 700 629.3 7.5 594.1 Models Number of aircraft under operating lease Number of aircraft under finance lease Number of aircraft purchased Delivery during the reporting period Disposal during the reporting period Number of aircraft at the end of the reporting period 561.3 XE CURRENCY CHARTS USD/INR CHART 600 5.6 6.2 5.0 5.9 5.9 500 29 Aug 2014 00:00 UTC - 28 Aug 2019 05:07 UTC USD/INR close: 71.62119 low: 60.21000 high: 74.35849 3 Airbus 2.5 400 A380 A330-300 A330-200 A321 A320 A319 0 8 2 22 44 17 2 20 7 42 41 0 3 1 7 34 57 14 0 7 0 9 10 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 5 29 16 98 142 31 12h 300 0.0 The chart depicting the general trend of cost structure of aviation industry has been worked out from available information in AT-II division, DGCA. 75 200 1D –2.5 100 –5.0 0 OPERATING COST PER ASK, 2016-17 1W 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 70 Source: China Civil Aviation Annual Report 2017 Boeing 1M 12.0 Operating cost per ASK adjusted for industry average stage length of 1152.8 B787-8 B787-9 B777-300ER B777-200 B757-200 B737-800 B737-700 B737-300 2 0 0 0 0 146 3 0 13 4 9 0 0 70 0 0 1 0 1 2 6 101 35 0 0 3 0 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 2 7 3 16 4 10 2 6 317 38 0 PROPORTIONS OF TOTAL TRANSPORT TURNOVER BY AIRLINES (GROUPS) IN 2017 10.0 65 1Y 8.0 2Y China National Aviation Holding Group 6.0 China Eastern Air Holding Group 60 26.4% 5Y 19.7% 4.0 10Y 2.0 55 Other 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 EMB190 20 0 6 0 0 26 Other Airlines 0.0 13.1% Jet Air s ite ia ceJe t Air Asi a iGo ress Tru tara JetL Ind Vis m way Go Ind Zoo Air Spi Air Exp Jet Air ia Ind Air Air e anc Alli Passenger Aircraft Freighter 264 208 268 79 27 740 25.2% B747-400F B777-200F 0 0 0 5 2 7 0 0 0 0 2 12 China Southern Air Holding Group 15.5% Unadjusted Operating cost per ASK Adjusted Operating cost per ASK Freighter Sub-total Total 0 264 5 213 9 277 0 79 0 27 14 754 Hainan Airlines Group USD - US Dollar INR - Indian Rupee Source: China Civil Aviation Annual Report 2017 Source: China Southern Airlines Annual Report 2017 74 75 178 179 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2017-2018 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 www.spscivilaviationyearbook.com www.spscivilaviationyearbook.com AIRCRAFT CATALOGUE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS AIRBUS A320 AIRBUS A320NEO AIRBUS A321 AIRBUS A330-200 INTRODUCTION Range with Sharklets 5,950 km / 3,200 nm Range with Sharklets 6,100 km / 3,300 nm This section is all about the flag bearers of aviation in Asia from regulatory bodies like the Ministries and Departments of Civil Aviation, Airports Authority, Airlines (including National Carriers), Operators and Associations. Given here are exhaustive details of these leaders, like their profiles, the structure of their organisation and the contact details of their senior and middle management. These opinion leaders are the policy makers and decision takers not just for their organisation but for the aviation sector in their country as well. Their visions have a direct and indirect bearing on the entire sector in the region. CAPACITY (PAX) CAPACITY (PAX) Typical seating 185 Typical seating 150 Max 236 Max 180 Max payload 21.2 tonnes / 46 lb x 1,000 Max payload 16.6 tonnes / 36 lb x 1 000 Wing span with Sharklets 35.80 m / 117 ft 5 in Wing span 35.80 m / 117 ft 5 Overall length 44.51 m / 146 ft 0 in Overall length 37.57 m / 123 ft 3 in Height 11.76 m / 38 ft 7 in Height 11.76 m / 38 ft 7 in DIMENSIONS DIMENSIONS BAHRAIN Overall length 44.51 m / 146 ft 0 in Overall length 37.57 m Cabin length 34.44 m / 113 ft 0 in Cabin length 27.51 m ORGANISATION CHART - MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS Fuselage width 3.95 m / 13 ft 0 in Fuselage width 3.95 m Max cabin width 3.70 m / 12 ft 1 in Max cabin width 3.70 m Minister of Transportation and Telecommunications Wing span (geometric) with Sharklets 35.80 m / 117 ft 5 Wing span (geometric) 35.80 m with Sharklets Height 11.76 m / 38 ft 7 in Height 11.76 m Public Relations and Marketing Directorate Telecommunications Directorate CAPACITY (PAX) Track 7.59 m / 24 ft 11 in Track 7.59 m Typical seating 247 Wheelbase 16.91 m / 55 ft 48 in Wheelbase 12.64 m CAPACITY (PAX) Max 406 PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE Typical seating 165 DIMENSIONS Range 5,950 km with Sharklets Range 6,100 km with Sharklets Max 180 Overall length 58.82 m Mmo M0.82 Mmo M0.82 Assistant Undersecretary Resources and Information Undersecretary, Land Transportation and Post Undersecretary, Civil Aviation Affairs Undersecretary, Ports and Maritime Affairs DIMENSIONS Cabin length 45.00 m Max ramp weight 89.4 (93.9) tonnes Max ramp weight 73.9 (78.4) tonnes Overall length 37.57 m Fuselage width 5.64 m Max take-off weight 89.0 (93.5) tonnes Max take-off weight 73.5 (78.0) tonnes Cabin length 27.51 m Poste Regulations Directorate Assistant Undersecretary, Air Navigation and Meteorology Assistant Undersecretary, Ports Affairs Max cabin width 5.28 m Max landing weight 75.5 (77.8) tonnes Max landing weight 64.5 (66.0) tonnes Fuselage width 3.95 m Wing span (geometric) 60.30 m Max zero fuel weight 71.5 (73.8) tonnes Max zero fuel weight 61.0 (62.5) tonnes Max cabin width 3.70 m Assistant Undersecretary, Maritime Affairs Assistant Undersecretary, Post Height 17.39 m Max fuel capacity 24 050 (30 030) litres Max fuel capacity up to 24 210 (27,200) litres Assistant Undersecretary, Air Transport and Aviation Safety and Security Wing span (geometric) 35.80 m Track 10.69 m Engine V2500-A5, CFM56-5B Engines x2 V2500-A5, CFM56-5B Height 11.76 m Assistant Undersecretary, Logistic Zones and Port Security Wheelbase 22.20 m Thrust range 120 (148) kN Thrust range 98 (120) kN Track 7.59 m Assistant Undersecretary, Land Transportation FREIGHT Wheelbase 12.64 m LD3 capacity underfloor 26 (27) FREIGHT Max pallet number underfloor 8+3 LD3 LD3 capacity underfloor 7 LD3-45W WHO’S WHO - AIRLINES Bulk hold volume 19.70 m3 Max pallet number underfloor 7 Total volume (Bulk loading) 136.0 m3 Airlines Contact Designation Add City Pin Country Bulk hold volume 5.90 m3 PERFORMANCE Gulf Air Krešimir Kucko Chief Executive Officer P.O. Box 138, Manama Kingdom of Bahrain Total volume (Bulk loading) 37.40 m3 Range 13 450 km PERFORMANCE Gulf Air Captain Waleed Abdulhameed Al Alawi Deputy CEO P.O. Box 138, Manama Kingdom of Bahrain MMO M0.86 Range 6,500 km with Sharklets Max ramp weight 230.9 (242.9) tonnes Mmo M0.82 Max take-off weight 230.0 (242.0) tonnes Max ramp weight 73.9 (78.4) tonnes Gulf Air Captain Suhail Abdulhameed Ismaeel Chief Operating Officer P.O. Box 138, Manama Kingdom of Bahrain Max landing weight 180 (182) tonnes Max take-off weight 73.5 (78.0) tonnes Max zero fuel weight 168.0 (170) tonnes Max landing weight 64.5 (66.0) tonnes Gulf Air Vincent Coste Chief Commercial Officer P.O. Box 138, Manama Kingdom of Bahrain Max fuel capacity 1,39,090 litres Max zero fuel weight 62.8 (64.3) tonnes Engines x2 PW4000, GE CF6-80E1, RR Trent 700 Max fuel capacity up to 23,760 (26 750) litres Gulf Air Jamal Abdulrahman Hashim Chief Technical Officer P.O. Box 138, Manama Kingdom of Bahrain Engines x2 PW1100G-JM, CFMI Leap-1A Thrust range 303 to 316 kN Gulf Air Abid Siddiqi Chief Financial Officer P.O. Box 138, Manama Kingdom of Bahrain 282 283 193 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 www.spscivilaviationyearbook.com SP’s CIVIL AVIATION YEARBOOK 2019 www.spscivilaviationyearbook.com
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